雇主僱用中重度智能障礙者之考量因素探討

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2008

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本研究旨在探討雇主持續僱用中重度智能障礙者之考量因素,以及比較不同個人及組織背景變項之雇主在僱用考量上的差異情形。運用問卷調查方式,以目前有僱用中重度智能障礙者達三個月以上之雇主為研究對象,共發出150份問卷,回收有效問卷107份,並以描述性統計、獨立樣本t檢定、單因子變異數分析等統計方式進行資料處理與分析。本研究結果說明如下: 一、由雇主填寫公司內中重度智能障礙員工的就業資料,結果發現多數者經由學校推薦管道進到職場,從事的工作性質偏向簡單反覆性、使用體力及單純手工之作業,至於任職的公司行號以員工人數100人以下之中小民營企業為主、服務業居多。 二、雇主僱用中重度智能障礙者時,優先考量「智障者工作習慣與態度」,次為「智障者工作相關技能」,「公司內部營運因素」再次之,「外在社會因素」的考量程度最低。 三、雇主對於中重度智能障礙者的僱用考量不會因自身性別、年齡、教育程度、工作職位、與智能障礙者接觸經驗的不同而有顯著差異。 四、不同公司經營性質及行業類別之雇主對於中重度智能障礙者的僱用考量具有差異,公營事業單位較民營事業單位重視外在社會因素、服務業較工業重視「智障者工作相關技能」及「外在社會因素」,至於公司成立年數及員工規模則無明顯影響。 根據上述研究結果,針對學校單位、就業服務單位、政府單位及未來研究等方面提出建議,以供參考。
The purpose of this study presented in this article was to investigate employers’ considerations in hiring and retaining individuals with moderate or severe intellectual disability. Furthermore, the study also examined the effects of organizational and personal characteristics of the employer on hiring considerations. A self-designed questionnaire developed through extensive literature review was used to collect data. Questionnaires were completed by 107 employers, each of whom had employed one or more persons with moderate or severe intellectual disability for at least three months. Frequencies, means, standard deviations were reported. In addition, the collected data was analyzed via t-tests and one-way analyses of variance in terms of whole group responses and within-group differences. The major findings were as follows: 1. The characteristics of most organizations hiring the moderate or severe intellectual disability workers are small and medium enterprises with less than 100 employees, service trades, and non-government establishments. Most common types of jobs for the workers with moderate or severe intellectual disability were entry-level, and low-skill positions. 2. When employers concerned about hiring and retaining employees with moderate or severe intellectual disability, factors related to work habits and attitudes of the intellectually disabled were rated the most important. Factors related to job-related skills of the intellectually disabled and organizational operation factors were rated moderately important. Social factors were rated the least important. 3. There were no effects of personal characteristics of the employer on hiring considerations for the moderate or severe intellectually disabled workers. 4. There were two main effects related to organizational characteristics. First, employers from government establishments rated social factors as significantly more important than those from non-government establishments. Second, social factors and another factors related to work habits and attitudes of the intellectually disabled were considered significantly more important by employers from service trades than by those from industries. Implications and suggestions for schools, employment service agencies, government, and future studies were provided accordingly.

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雇主, 僱用考量, 中重度智能障礙者, employers, hiring concerns, individuals with moderate or severe intellectual disability

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