典範的轉移:嘉義新港溪北的庄頭神信仰研究

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2022

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本論文試圖探討嘉義新港溪北庄的庄頭神信仰,亦以分析溪北庄兩大間宮廟—「鎮武宮」、「六興宮」的發展歷史做為主體,佐以口訪記錄及庄內的重要祭祀禮儀。其次,筆者也梳理溪北庄的開發歷史以及庄頭神如何受到庄內居民崇拜及背後所隱藏的互動群體關係。另外,筆者也將著重於探討自水師提督王得祿將黑面三媽請回溪北庄建廟供奉後,對於該庄頭的信仰情況產生何種改變。在王得祿提督將黑面三媽請回溪北庄後,庄內的信仰中心似乎有被轉移的情況產生,玄天上帝在庄民心中的地位因黑面三媽的到來,產生了莫大的變化。黑面三媽的信仰起於王提督而逐漸興盛,影響了玄天上帝在庄內居民心中的地位,致使後來媽祖神威逐漸凌駕於玄天上帝之上,背後信仰「典範轉移」的原因值得探究。溪北庄位於嘉義縣,因此研究者除了蒐集文獻資料外,亦會親身至溪北庄進行田野調查,記錄第一手的祭祀禮儀過程。從中發現庄內居民與兩大公廟彼此的關係,一方面鎮武宮的玄天上帝才是「開庄之神」但六興宮的黑面三媽又似乎發展得較為興盛,因六興宮的建立原因較為特殊,也形成異於其他廟宇的民間信仰特色。本論文將呈現溪北庄百年來信仰的特殊之處,並將其放置於人文歷史的庄頭信仰脈絡下做探討。
This study investigates the Xi-bei Chuang’s local god belief in Xingang area, Chiayi county. By analyzing the history of two main temples in Xi-bei Chuang, Chen Wu Temple, and Liu Xin Temple, the structured oral interview documented the influential worshipping culture that happened in the village. Moreover, the study combed through the development history of Xi-bei Chuang and how the village god was being worshipped by the villagers, analyzing the interaction of the village community underlying the religious activities. Furthermore, this study investigates explicitly how the original religious activity shifts in the village after the navy admiral Wang De-lu re-enshrined Heimian San Ma to Xi-bei Chuang.After navy admiral Wang had re-enshrined the Heimin San Ma to Xi-bei Chuang, the religious center in the village seemed to shift. This study dives deep into the detail of how the Paradigm shift underlying religious activity had expanded over time. After the goddess's re-enshrining, the locals had shifted from their original local religion of Xuanwu, or Xuantian Shandi, to Heimian San Ma, which considerably changed the dynamic of the local religious belief. With the promotion of navy admiral Wang, the Heimian San Ma religion became popular, and the villagers' belief in Xuanwu eventually shifted. The shifting caused the later episode of Heimian San Ma's power trumping over Xuanwu, and ever since then, the village religious center gradually shifted to Liu Xin Temple. In this context, we explore a further reason behind the power shifting of religion.Aside from collecting historical papers and data, the study will take a field survey to the Xi-bei Chuang located in Chiayi County to record the religious ritual process first-hand. During the interview, this study looks into the villagers’ relationship between two temples. On the one hand, the locals consider the Xuanwu residing in Chen Wu Temple as the “founding god of the village,” on the other hand, they admired the Heimian San Ma enshrined in Liu Xin Temple for better development. The unique reason for Liu Xin Temple to be built had made it stand out from other folklore religions from other local temples. The study aims to show the unique shifting local religion of Xi-bei village over a hundred years and examine this curious phenomenon under the texts of public religion in the village through an aspect of cultural tradition.

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溪北庄, 王得祿, 六興宮, 鎮武宮, 典範轉移, Xi-bei Chuang, Wang De-lu, Liu Xin Temple, Chen Wu Temple, Paradigm shift

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