拱樂社歌仔戲劇本之語言研究:以《金銀天狗》為例

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2009

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內台歌仔戲職業劇團拱樂社,於1952年首度編寫歌仔戲劇本,改變以往「講戲」的演出形式,留下大量以閩南語書寫的劇本。本論文即以現存拱樂社歌仔戲劇本中年代最早的《金銀天狗》為研究對象。本研究提出閩南語文獻判讀的方法,以借音字的應用、押韻、方言差異的知識、文化背景之了解等原則,應用於本研究對象中,提出音讀、用字、詞彙、修辭、語言風格等分析。 本研究略述拱樂社背景及歌仔戲劇本產生的原因,並論述劇本中呈獻的文化背景與文化意涵,作為語言分析的背景。藉由方言差異的類型,搭配韻腳的觀察及借音字的使用,可以看出本劇偏泉腔的方言特色;而在用字類型方面,則以前人之用字研究為基礎,提出補充的分類和觀察,並辨析一字多音的使用情形,呈現劇本中靈活的用字策略。本研究認為歌仔戲劇本之書寫方式與歌仔冊有相當高的相似度,但較歌仔冊更為口語,劇中有許多目前已逐漸流失的閩南語詞彙,本研究羅列部分特殊詞,並修正傳藝出版本詞彙註解之錯誤。除了音字與詞彙之外,戲曲用語、句式及劇本的形式,皆構成文本特殊的語言風格。本研究企圖累積閩南語文獻的分析資料,尤其是可補足前人研究中較缺乏的歌仔戲文本分析,並肯定拱樂社劇本作為閩南語文獻研究對象之意義與價值。
The professional Taiwanese Stage Opera Troupe “Gong-Le-She” first produced Taiwanese Opera scripts in 1952, thus changing the oral tradition of performance, and left behind as its legacy astounding volumes of scripts written in the Minnan language (Taiwanese). The purpose of this study focuses on the earliest of these surviving scripts, the “Jin-Yin-Tian-Gou”. This study provide methods to read such Minnan literature, based on the principles in utilizing phonetic loan characters, rhyme and rhythm, differences between dialects, and knowledge of the cultural background, and applied them in this research. We further propose analyses in phonetic reading, vocabulary usage and terminologies, as well as grammatical structure. To provide backdrop, this study outline the background of Gong-Le-She, the reasons for the creation of Taiwanese Opera scripts, and discussed the cultural background and meanings present in the scripts. Through the differences in dialects, the observations of rhyming schemes, and the way phonetic loan characters are utilized, it is evident that this particular opera leans towards the Chuan style. In terms of vocabulary, this study build on the foundation laid by previous research, adding further categorizations and observations, as well as identifying the use of one character to depict numerous sounds, thus showing the flexibility with which vocabulary is utilized in this script. This study indicates that the written form of Taiwanese Opera is highly similar to the Taiwanese folk-song booklets , but the operas are even more colloquial than the booklets, while also including many Minnan words and phrases that are gradually disappearing from modern parlance. This study listed many such special examples, and corrected some mistakes in the annotations of the publisher (The Center for Traditional Arts). Aside from phonetic words and vocabulary, the stage language, sentence structures and the style of script all contribute to the uniqueness of this text. This study is attempting to build further on the research of Minnan literature, especially in Taiwanese Opera script analysis (an aspect previously lacking in such research), and through our work affirm the value of the Gong-Yueh Society scripts as Minnan literature worthy of further research.

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拱樂社, 金銀天狗, 歌仔戲, 歌仔冊, 閩南語, 書寫, 用字, Gong-Le-She, Jin-Yin-Tian-Gou, Taiwanese Opera, Taiwanese folk-song booklets, Taiwanese language, writing, vocabulary

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