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本論文旨在探究現代漢語教育文本中教育隱喻是以何種語言形式存在,分析其映射來源域的種類以及隱喻背後的認知過程,進而從中討論教育隱喻所反映的社會情況,並提出適合概念隱喻特性的教學應用。 本文之理論架構為概念隱喻理論(Conceptual Metaphor Theory),以天下雜誌教育主題文章以及大學校長演說內容等教育文本為分析對象,透過LIVAC語料庫工具進行研究。結果發現:(1)在語言層次上,現代漢語中教育隱喻最常取用的來源域為「植物」、「產業」、「旅行」、「建築」、以及「戰爭」概念域。形成如「教學是培養」、「學生是產品」、「學習是旅行」、「知識是建築」、「學習方法是戰略」等的映射,表現在「培養、品質、前進、架構、策略」等隱喻詞。 (2)在概念層次上,來源域的某些顯著特徵在概念化的過程中映射到目標域,反映在相應隱喻使用的高詞頻(token frequency)及多詞種(type frquency)上,如:「植物」生長的自發性、外力輔助生長的有效性;「建築」的創造性、建造過程順序性;「產業」的工作過程效率、成果品質重要性等等。(3)在社會文化層次上,比較天下雜誌1991年至2015年各來源域的教育隱喻數量後發現,「植物」域隱喻詞使用頻率保持最高,這是由於因為植物生長過程兼具了內在自身力量及外力重要性,符合人們自然經驗且維持教育的積極意義,較易為大眾接受。其高頻隱喻詞「培養、培育」亦具規約化傾向,教育域義項較基本義強勢。而以「產業」作教育詞彙的來源域則日漸普遍,是受到科技發展、資本主義以及教育政策如教育經費編列的影響,重視量化的教育成效。另一方面,校長演說文章則傾向利用「建築」域隱喻來描述學校發展,一是為強調前人的貢獻,二則是增加話語的說服力,藉由「奠基、建造」等詞激發人們對於整個建造事件以及完工的想像,為將要執行的計畫添增穩定感。 最後,(4)在教學應用上,根據本文研究教育隱喻映射原則顯著性成果,並考慮個別詞彙的教育隱喻潛能,提出一善用隱喻認知性、系統性以及文化性的翻轉課程教案,希冀能有效應用於語言教育中。
This paper examines the kinds of language patterns that compose educational metaphors in modern Mandarin Chinese, analyses the type of the source domain mapped by these metaphors, and discusses the cognitive processes underlying them. How educational metaphors reflect aspects of society is then discussed, followed by a proposal for educational applications suitable for the characteristics of conceptual metaphors. The theoretical framework of this paper is based on Conceptual Metaphor Theory and educational texts, the main objects of analysis being educational articles from Common Wealth Magazine and speeches by presidents of Taiwanese universities. The synchronous LIVAC (Linguistic Variation in Chinese Speech Communities) corpus tool was applied to process and analyze the texts. Research findings: (1) The most frequent source domains of educational metaphors in modern Mandarin Chinese are PLANT, BUILDING, TRAVEL, INDUSTRY and WAR. Forming mapping principles as, for instance, EDUCATION IS NURTURE, STUDENTS ARE PRODUCTS, LEARNING IS A JOURNEY, KNOWLEDGE IS A BUILDING, THE WAY OF STUDY IS WAR, which are expressed in metaphorical vocabulary like nurture, quality, going forward, structure, and strategy. (2) At the conceptual level, certain significant characteristics of the source domain are mapped to the target domain during the conceptualization process, for example, the spontaneity of growth, and the effectiveness of external assistance on the growth of a PLANT; the creativity and construction sequence of a BUILDING; the efficiency of the labor process and the importance of product quality of in INDUSTRY. These are also reflected in the high token frequency and high type frequency of the use of corresponding metaphors. (3) At a societal and cultural level, a quantitative comparison of educational metaphors in every source domain of Common Health Magazine from 1991 until today showed that the frequency of use of the PLANT metaphor remained the highest. The reason being that the growth of plants has an inner motivation, while simultaneously relying on outer forces to provide a favorable surrounding environment, thus incorporating the importance of both inner and outer forces. Moreover, the high-frequency metaphors NURTURE and CULTIVATION indicate conventionalization, their senses when used in an educational domain are already greater than their fundamental meaning. However, source domains of educational vocabulary that use INDUSTRY have become gradually more common, this is due to the influence of technological development, capitalism, and educational policies such as the preparation of educational budgets, increasingly attaching more importance to the quantification of educational results. On the other hand, the speeches of university presidents tended to employ BUILDING metaphors to describe the university’s development in order to emphasize the contributions of predecessors and to strengthen the persuasiveness of their words, aiming to increase the feeling of security concerning the implementation of new plans. In conclusion, (4) adopting cognitive teaching models and employing aforementioned analysis results, this study will propose a metaphorical vocabulary teaching plan that takes into consideration the significance of mapping principles and the potential of educational metaphors. It will exploit the cognitiveness, systematicity, and culturality of conceptual metaphors, which hopefully can be effectively applied in language education.



概念隱喻, 教育隱喻, LIVAC語料庫, 翻轉課程, conceptual metaphor, educational metaphor, LIVAC Synchronous Corpus, flipped classroom