G. Harman與J. Doris社會心理學情境論與德行倫理學的品格辯論及其對品格教育的啟示

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Department od Education, NTNU


The currently heated debate about character is highly relevant to character education, since a camp of philosophers inspired by the empirical findings of situationism in social psychology purport to question an Aristotelian conception of character which fuels contemporary character education. This challenge is countered by some virtue ethicists who respond that this behaviourist conception of character is problematic. Overwhelmingly focusing on one's overt behavioural dispositions. In addition to, distorting the nature of character, it does not have sufficient resources to represent and even test a more appropriate holistic Aristotelian conception of character. Despite its failure, situationism does indeed have some practical implications for character education. Firstly, character education must consider the concept of ( moral ) character to the full - that is, both its behavioural dimension and the subject's moral psychology and functioning. Secondly, the funamental attribution error highlights the difficulty and complexity of making character trait attributions and evaluations. Thridly, the empirical rarity of global chacter traits compels one to reflect on what the appropriate language is in which character trait attributions and evaluations can be made. Fourthly, the subtle influence of some situational factors on behavior helps explain some moral phenomena and omprove moral action. Finally, situation management and character construction are collaborative in promoting moral behaviour.