臺北市英式下午茶生活方式與消費認同之探討

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2015

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  英式下午茶為一種飲食形式,以在午後享用精緻的茶飲與茶點著稱,約於1840年代前後在英國社會蔚為風潮,影響擴及今日,並達世界各地。雖然流傳已久,形式漸趨簡化,但由於下午茶最初流行的時期正是英國史上最輝煌的維多利亞時代,故而仍帶有當時飲茶重視氛圍優雅、器具精美、飲食可口多樣的形象,成為英國茶文化的象徵。近年來臺北市內新開設許多風格獨特的下午茶館,雖然英式下午茶與臺灣傳統飲茶文化截然不同,卻擁護者甚眾。故本研究欲探究英式下午茶文化得以被臺北人接納的發展背景,以及探討在臺北的茶館空間內,經營者與消費者圍繞下午茶生活方式互動的過程。   本研究以歷史文獻回溯英國自初接觸茶至醞釀出下午茶文化的歷程,並與臺灣從紅茶生產到現今至英式下午茶消費的過程作比較,探究異國文化傳播與都市發展的關係;經由實地觀察及訪談取得茶館經營者塑造茶館氛圍的理念與布置,以及消費者造訪茶館之後的感受和認同,探討兩者在茶館中的空間再現與再現空間。並以炫耀性消費的概念,了解顧客至英式下午茶館消費,背後的文化意義,並建構出英式下午茶得以在異地傳播及銷售的因素。   經研究過後,得出以下結果: 1. 過去英國下午茶的飲宴形式變化與工業發展、都市擴張侵入鄉村的歷史脈絡有關。而飲茶風氣在英國,是從倫敦向外傳播,英式下午茶在臺灣,則是在臺北發展得最為蓬勃,主因是上層都市能比其他區域接收更快、更多異國文化資訊,也更有機會發展出不同於以往的都市生活方式。 2. 茶館經營者將「至英式下午茶館飲茶」視為一種文化消費,透過生產文化意義、規範飲食禮儀與加強自我認同,將夢想中的下午茶空間再現於擁有的茶館;而顧客們則是藉由經營者傳達的文化意義與規範,形塑自己對該茶館的認知與認同,並在茶館中採取相應的行動,使茶館成為再現的空間。 3. 對顧客來說,比起能獲得飽足感,茶館更具有社交、展示自我的意義。人們藉由在茶館從事炫耀性消費,定位個人風格,彰顯品味及隱含的社會地位。
Afternoon tea is a tea-related ritual, well-known for the fine tea and exquisite desserts and introduced in Britain in the early 1840s. Nowadays, afternoon tea culture has been influenced worldwide. Tea culture is the symbol of Britain culture. Though it is simpler than before, it still contains the characteristics from the Victorian era such as drinking tea with sundry refreshments by delicate tableware in elegant ambience. Recently, some unique tea houses open in Taipei city. Although British afternoon tea is definitely different from Taiwanese traditional tea culture, many people go to British tea houses in Taipei. Thus, this research investigates the history of afternoon tea in Britain and Taiwan and finds out the relationship of exotic culture communication and urban development. After that, this research discusses the production of space in those tea houses and the genre de vie the owner and the consumers create together. The results of research are: 1. The communication of afternoon tea in Victorian era is related to industrialization and urbanization in Britain. Tea spread out from London in Britain in 1840s, as afternoon tea spread out from Taipei in Taiwan these days. The reason is that the upper cities have more tendency to accept exotic culture than other cities. Thus, the opportunity of those upper cities to develop new genre de vie is increasing. 2. To the owners of tea houses, the drinking of tea is a kind of cultural consumption. By producing cultural meaning of tea, regulating table etiquette, and strengthening self-identity, the owners represent their dream tea houses in the real spaces. On the other hand, the consumers shape their understanding and identities of the tea houses by learning the cultural meaning and etiquette. They act according to their understanding and hence make the tea houses representational spaces. 3. To the consumers, tea house is a place of social intercourse and self- expression. They see drinking tea as conspicuous consumption. By doing this, they define the taste and veiled social status of themselves.

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英式下午茶, 生活方式, 消費認同, 炫耀性消費, 空間的生產, 文化迴路, afternoon tea, genre de vie, identity of consumption, conspicuous consumption, production of space, circuit of culture

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