青少年知覺父母心理控制與心理憂鬱之縱貫性研究

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2011

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青少年知覺父母心理控制與青少年心理憂鬱的相關研究,國外學者已討論許多,累積的研究資料已顯示:子女長期處於父母這樣的心理控制下,易造成子女日後心理憂鬱的情緒產生(Barber & Harmon, 2002; Pettit et al., 2001);且青少年負向的情緒表現與父母日後心理控制的互動下,更會使得青少年心理憂鬱發展的延續(Albrecht et al., 2007; Rogers et al., 2003)。 然而,在跨文化研究資料當中,甚少人從華人特有的教養去探討華人父母對子女的心理控制與青少年心理憂鬱發展之關連為何。而故本研究目的是希望從華人特有的教養文化之角度,探討子女知覺父母的心理控制與子女心理憂鬱發展的關連。本研究資料取自CABLE資料庫1444位學生六年長期追蹤下來的縱貫性資料,進行統計分析與討論。本研究以潛在變項的方式來建構青少年知覺父母心理控制與青少年心理憂鬱,並採用潛在成長模式(Latent growth model,LGM)探討此兩個變項個別變動的軌跡,以及兩者變動軌跡之間的關係。研究目的希望能夠瞭解四年級至九年級不同性別的青少年,其四至九年級知覺父母心理控制的發展情形,以及其四至九年級心理憂鬱的發展情形;並進一步探討從不同性別的青少年,青少年知覺父母的心理控制與青少年心理憂鬱之潛在成長模式的起始狀態對成長速率之影響,進而去檢視其中的「父母影響力」以及「孩童影響力」。 本研究結果顯示,青少年男生在四年級時,其知覺父母心理控制分數較高的學生,會隨著時間的累積,其知覺父母心理控制下降的速率也較快。而青少年女生的部分則呈現相反的結果,其四年級知覺父母心理控制分數較高的學生,會隨著時間的累積,其知覺父母心理控制成長的速率也較慢。在心理憂鬱的部分,青少年女生在四年級時,其心理憂鬱分數較高的學生,會隨著時間的累積,其心理憂鬱成長的速率緩慢成長,而青少年男生部分則有不同的結果,其心理憂鬱的成長速率並無顯著的成長。 本研究結果發現,我們不但可以觀察到「父母影響力」,亦能觀察到「孩童影響力」此兩種交互影響的現象,但本研究男、女生的統計資料結果皆顯示,青少年在四年級知覺父母控制較能預測其日後心理憂鬱的發展,亦即「父母影響力」在此顯著高於「孩童影響力」。
Based on Beck’s cognitive triad theory, we has two hypothesis. First, we hypothesized the parental psychological control would have negative impacts on the adolescents’ depression trajectories, which named “parent effect”. Second, we hypothesized the adolescents’ depression would have negative impacts on parental psychological control trajectories, which called “child effect”. According to these two hypothesis, we also examined parent effect and child effect which effect had more significant effect. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to were explore gender’s differences of the relationship between parental psychological control and adolescents’ depression from childhood into adolescence. This study consisting of 1,444 students’ responses to depression and parental psychological control questions from a cohort study in Taiwan which named “Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-term Evolution (CABLE)”. This study based on different gender, we separated participants into two groups(Boys, N=692; Girls, N=752). This study applies latent growth model to data from six waves. Complete data from 1,444 children were analyzed and results showed that (1) boys perceived more parental psychological control at 4 grade, the trajectories of boys will decreased more rapidly, whereas in girls increased. (2) girls had more depression symptoms at 4 grade, the trajectories of girls will significantly increased , whereas in boys decreased more rapidly. (3) we both found parent effect and child effect in the latent growth model, but the parent effect had more significant effect than child effect.

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青少年知覺父母心理控制, 心理憂鬱, 潛在成長模式, parental psychological control, depression, latent growth model

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