家長參與智能障礙者轉銜歷程之研究--應用生態系統觀點

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2009

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本研究旨在瞭解智能障礙者的家長參與轉銜歷程,及他們與轉銜服務互動的現況。研究參與者為六位不同智能障礙者的家長。研究者以半結構的深度訪談方式,輔以觀察與文件分析進行研究,並應用生態系統觀點作為分析架構。本研究結果說明如下: 一、家長參與子女轉銜歷程,可概分為五個階段:轉銜服務前的父母心、在參與中形成想法、認真思索與調整決定、不斷尋找及嘗試合適服務、持續支持子女。 家長對子女轉銜認知起步不一,除了受許多因素影響外,想法亦有很大差異,但家長對轉銜議題的想法、認知會影響其參與轉銜歷程的行動和動機。 當家長進入歷程,透過服務擴展了對轉銜議題的瞭解,且和原來的想法產生交互作用,其觀點直到畢業後仍持續變動著,而影響家長對子女的轉銜期待及服務尋求。 家長從轉銜活動的參與中拓展了對轉銜議題及相關資訊的認識,並進而從子女的能力表現與家庭需求的基礎上,決定適合的安置方式或服務,並尋求可及服務,獲得服務之後,家長仍持續扮演支持子女的重要角色。 二、家長參與轉銜是一段許多影響因素不斷互動、改變的循環歷程,該歷程是獨特且受到其所處之生態系統的深切影響。 三、家長和智能障礙者同是服務的消費者。家長和智能障礙者共同面臨轉銜歷程中的不確定,他們需要專業服務的介入及社會、心理的支持。轉銜服務不僅為了協助智能障礙者能順利由學校轉銜至社區,也讓家長在轉銜服務的協助下,適應子女畢業後家庭生活的改變,繼續擔任子女重要的支持者。 根據上述研究結果,研究者建議教育單位應促發家長對子女轉銜議題的關切及參與動機,建立良好夥伴關係,並落實轉銜評量,瞭解社區及家庭生態,以提供個別化轉銜服務;研究者提醒家長為其子女轉銜過程中的關鍵人物,需積極瞭解並投入轉銜歷程;亦對相關行政主管機關提出建議,認為應加強追蹤輔導及資源整合工作。
The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine the perspectives on transition of parents who have children with intellectual disability (ID) from school to adult life. The data were collected through observation and interviewing with eight parents. Ecological Model Theory was adopted to be a referent framework for analysis. There are three core themes were found by eight parents: (1) Recognizing five specific stages in transition process, such as the viewpoints before delivering the transition service, the insights during the transition activities, decision making and adaption, specific services pursuing, and supporting to their child in order. (2) While parents participated in transition services, it was an interactive and changeable process which was deeply affected by Ecological System where they live. (3) Both parents and young adults with ID are the consumer of the service in transition process. Regarding to the ways which parent involved in the transition process from school to adult life, researcher categorized two types. One was that some parents chose to play as passive roles on transition process, and the other was that others are more aggressive and participated in the transition process. It also demonstrated the potential importance of systematic intervention aimed at improving family understanding and involvement. Recommendations based on research findings were provided for school system, government, and future studies.

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智能障礙者, 家長參與, 轉銜

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