初探我國參加ISEF學生之特質與科展相關因素之分析

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2015

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本研究針對參加美國國際科學展覽會(ISEF)學生進行追蹤調查與訪談,第一階段為問卷調查,內容包含基本資料、人格特質、科展歷程因素與科展經驗之影響,共有117位完成問卷填答。第二階段採取半結構式訪談,進一步探討受訪者之家庭教養、科展歷程、大學或職場歷程與參加科展因素,共有18位參與訪談。主要發現如下:(1)多數填答者家長具有較高學歷背景,家庭經濟狀況良好。填答者多數認為家中整體教養環境偏向自由民主,對其具有重要影響力。(2)填答者多數曾就讀數理資優班或科學班,對於學業具有較高自我滿意度,就業者具有較高職業成就滿意度。(3)人格特質量表(The mini-IPIP scale)顯示「想像力」平均數最高,「親和性」次之,「神經質」則偏低;堅毅指數(The Grit-S scale)較高,顯示填答者凡事較為努力堅持且有一致的興趣。(4)在科展歷程中:填答者認為最主要參賽動機為「好奇探索」與「興趣」,研究過程最大困難或阻礙為「學校課業壓力」,最大正面助益為「增加報告與表達能力」;導致獲獎與否的最重要因素為「題目取材」,影響科展活動歷程的最重要因素為「指導教授或教師」;理想科展指導者所應具備的最重要特質中,大學教授著重於「提供知識與實驗構想」,高中教師著重於「支持與陪伴」。ISEF經驗對於填答者有顯著正面影響,尤其是「認識自我潛能」、「自我學習」與「ISEF經驗的整體影響」等方面。(5)質性訪談顯示科展歷程中,外在因素(指導老師、學校規定、支持環境)對參與者的重要性:合適指導者引導有潛力的科展題目,對參展或獲獎機會提升有重要影響;最後根據結論提出數點建議,例如在校方、指導教授與家人之間尋求共識以建立更合適與支持科展的環境。
The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics and experiences among Taiwanese participants who had joined International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF). First, a quantitative survey measuring background information, Grit personality (The Grit-S scale), and Big-Five personality (Mini-IPIP scale) were completed by a total of 117 participants. After, an in-depth interview was conducted to explore the experiences of selected 18 ISEF participants. The major findings indicted that: (1) these surveyed participants presented higher scores on the items of socio-economic status, democratic parenting style, and family influence (subjective perception to be influenced by his or her family) than the average scores. (2) They had studied in gifted program and exhibited higher on academic satisfaction and job satisfaction than average scores. (3) On the Mini-IPIP scale, the surveyed participants displayed higher score on Intellect/Imagination followed by Agreeableness; however, lower in Neuroticism. In addition, these surveyed participants were grittier than the average score measured by the Grit-S scale. (4). Most respondents indicated that the major motivation in joining this competition was curiosity and interest; however, the most challenging factor was that they had to cope with pressure of schoolwork in the process of the competition. Being able to improve presentation skills was considered to be rewards for joining this science fair. Choice of topics was considered to be one of the most critical factors for gaining awards. With regard to the expected supporters in this process, these interviewed ISEF participants expected that college professors could instruct them more domain knowledge about the topic they aimed to explore. On the other hand, school teachers were expected to provide more emotional supports. Overall, these Interviewees regarded this experience as positive and rewarding for cultivating personal potentials as well as for feelings of accomplishments. (5) Interview data suggested the importance of external supports such as college professors, school teachers, and school regulations. College professors play an important role in advising a promising topic for gaining award. Based on the results, several possible explanations and suggestions are proposed such as providing a more supporting environment from the dimensions of high school context,cooperated college professors, and family members.

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國際科展, 堅毅指數, 人格特質量表, 追蹤研究, International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF), the Grit Scale, Big-Five personality, Follow-up study

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