C. Taylor靈性倫理思想對「道德主義」之批判暨其德育蘊義

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Department of Education,National Taiwan Normal University
現代民主社會的道德哲學多關注個體的義務行為及規則遵守,並重視個體自由平等權利的保障。當代重要哲學家C. Taylor(1931-)稱這樣的道德哲學為「道德主義」(moralism),相對於以「善」為探究核心的「倫理學」(ethics)。Taylor認為,道德主義缺少對善之實質內涵的認識及其道德根源的不穩定,可能造成「自許正義」的偏狹態度,甚至是暴力的表現。而Taylor肯定超越性道德根源的倫理學思想,能提供吾人對於自我與善、與他人、與更高力量之關係的新理解,並給予有力的實踐動機。最後,藉由Taylor的倫理思想指出道德教育應回歸對「善」的重視,及其作為引導美善及智慧生活的重要性。
The focus of moral philosophy in modern democratic societies is more concerned with an individual's obligatory actions and his or her rights to freedom and to equality than what is considered morally good. C. Taylor (1931-), a significant contemporary philosopher, has deemed the aforementioned moral philosophy "moralism," which opposes "ethics," because ethical discourse places the highest priority on defining goodness and love. Taylor contends that the sources of moralism are vulnerable, lack stability, and fail to consider the good. The ability for people to express compassion and love toward each other is easily eclipsed by moralism, and this induces the expression of "righteousness." Taylor's ethics specifically identifies the transcendent as the greater moral source and provides a new understanding of the relationships between the self and the good, the self and the other, and the self and the transcendent, as well as a more powerful motivation to behave morally. Based on Taylor's ethics, this study highlights the significance of moral education that should reinstate the weight of the good, thereby assisting in the cultivation of students' wisdom and spirituality.