Act Locally, Think Regionally, and Contribute Globally through STEM Education: An Inter-related Study Case of Indonesian Science Teachers and Students Act Locally, Think Regionally, and Contribute Globally through STEM Education: An Inter-related Study Case of Indonesian Science Teachers and Students

Bevo Wahono
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This thesis addresses challenges regarding STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) education by the teachers and students in Asian regions. STEM education is indispensable for students in facing the complexity of a new world and uncertain conditions. Despite have an abundance of advantages, there are still gaps and challenges related to STEM education as a whole. Past studies revealed that most of the researches regarding STEM education originates from Western countries. However, it is not yet known the extent of STEM attitudes, knowledge, and even the application by the teachers, especially in many Asian countries, including Indonesia. In terms of research on the students, few studies have revealed the effectiveness ofSTEM education in the Asian sphere, especially comprehensively related to students' learning outcomes. Moreover, another challenge in Asian nations, such as in Indonesia, is that many science and technology topics, appear as controversial issues. The social complex issues involve concepts, procedures, and or technology as well as closely related to science and its derivatives, such as the issue of genetically modified organisms. The present thesis has four inter-related studies. Study 1, which is the baseline of this study, focuses on a comprehensive review of the current conditions regarding the development and impact of STEM education applications by teachers on students in the Asian region. The analysis results of effect sizes showed that the STEM enactments in Asia were effective in moderately level of improving students' learning outcomes. Study 2 aimed to design and develop a valid instrument that can be used to assure the quantitative degree of attitude, knowledge, and application of STEM (AKA) by science teachers. Results showed that the designed and developed AKA instrument was adequate to reliabilities and validities as well as can be used to collect data. Study 3 outlines the current conditions regarding STEM education by teachers in a particular country, Indonesia. This study focuses on assessing the growth of the latest developments of STEM as part of an effort to maintain the progress of STEM education. Results show that science teachers have an excellent attitude, a moderate-level category in the application, and a low-level category in knowledge regarding STEM education. Further, there were differences in knowledge and the application of STEM education, based on educational background and teaching experience of the teachers, yet there were no differences regarding teachers’ attitudes. Finally, Study 4 describes curriculum development and the effectiveness of a local-style STEM curriculum with Indonesian students. The results of the study revealed that socio-scientific issue-based instruction by STEM-6E could obviously explore a unique natural classroom interaction initiated by the teacher. Moreover, the results of the study also showed that both proximal and distal assessment had a significant pretest and post-test score differences. Therefore, this current thesis suggests that all parties must account for all factors such as teacher, student, culture, and curriculum, rather than a limited number of variables in understanding the STEM education phenomenon. The practical contribution of this inter-related study is crucial for STEM education, in Indonesia, the Asian region, as well as globally.
none, STEM education, science learning, teacher and student, Asia study, Indonesia