2000 - 2020年國內外自我認同圖畫書之內容與形式分析 Analysis of Picture books of Self-indentity issues, focusing on contents and styles between 2000 and 2020

Date
2021
Authors
呂岱綺
Lu, Tai-Chi
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Abstract
圖畫書的種類包羅萬象,其中一種類型,故事內容與「自我認同」相關,兒童可以透過閱讀此類書籍增加自信、了解自我,同時透過圖畫書改善情緒問題,幫助成長。自我認同感可以幫助兒童心靈成長,近年來兒童心理健康受到重視,家長也越來越注重圖畫書的教育品質,因此,在圖畫書內容與形式的呈現上,需要創作者與出版業共同把關。本研究欲分析2000-2020年,台灣市面上以中文出版,主題為自我認同的兒童圖畫書,樣本來源為新北市圖書總館,總共蒐集242本自我認同圖畫書樣本。研究分為內容分析與風格分析兩個部分,內容分析階段,將探討故事架構、認同類型與性別平衡問題;風格分類階段,則按照伊彬(2015)之風格分類架構進行歸類與比較。研究結果如下:1. 242本樣本主角情緒可歸納為三大類型:依照樣本數量由多至少為「內在需求」、「外在因素」、「無負面情緒」,故事架構缺乏創新,鼓勵創作者重視「無負面情緒」之主角情緒架構,嘗試跳脫悲觀情緒框架。 2. 242本樣本內容可歸納為五大認同類型:數量由多至少為「安全感」、「身體意象」、「能力」、「自我追尋」、「身分」。3. 以整體數量來看自我認同圖畫書中存在角色性別比例失衡之問題,男性主角明顯多於女性主角:(1)作者性別影響主角性別,尤以男性創作者更為明顯。(2)主角類別影響主角性別,動物與其他植物等類型主角的性別比例較人類比例更懸殊。(3)認同類型影響角色性別,唯有「身分」類型樣本,女性主角比例高於男性,其餘四大類型皆以男性主角比例高於女性,尤以「能力」類型性別比例最為懸殊。(4)社會議題可能是影響當年圖書館兒童書選書性別比例之因素。4. 以教育內容來看自我認同圖畫書性別教育內容越來越多元:(1)性別教育內容更多元,除了女權議題,更多了同性婚姻議題、多元性別、尊重不同性別氣質等教育題材。(2)角色設計開始突破性別刻板印象,創作者打破性別刻板印象的設定,在角色設計中,職業與外貌不再受到性別侷限。5. 自我認同圖畫書可歸納出12大項風格類型:以「童話卡通特質」為最大宗風格,「裝飾性圖案化特質」、「漫畫氣質」則並列第二大宗風格特徵。6. 兒童本位為自我認同圖畫書的風格選擇的重要考量。7. 出版國家地區影響風格類型的分布,亞洲地區風格分布較平均。8. 攝影後製、3D繪圖軟體技術的輔助,讓圖畫書的繪圖形式更多元。本研究建議作者、出版商和選書者應維持兒童圖畫書內容中的主角性別比例平衡,家長與師長可針對兒童遭遇之困擾,按照本研究對自我認同類型之分類進行書籍的選擇,並建議後續研究者,在未來研究中重視新風格的比例。
The types of picture books are all-encompassing. One of them is that the content of the story is related to"self-identity." Children can increase self-confidence and self-understanding through reading these books, and at the same time improve emotional problems and help them to grow up. Self-identity can help children’s spiritual growth. In recent years, children’s mental health has been given great importance, and parents have paid more and more attention to the educational quality of picture books. Therefore, the content and form of picture books need to be jointly checked by creators and the publishing industry.This study intends to analyze the self-identified children's picture books published in Chinese on the Taiwan market from 2000 to 2020. The sample source is from New Taipei City Library, collected a total of 242 samples of self-identified picture books. The research is divided into two parts: content analysis and style analysis. The content analysis stage will discuss the story structure, identification type and gender balance; the style classification stage will be classified and compared according to the style classification structure of I,Bin (2015).The results of the research are as follows. 1. The emotions of the protagonists in this sample of 242 can be summarized into three types:"internal needs", "external factors", and "no negative emotions" according to the number of samples, arranged from high to low. The story structure lacks innovation and encourages creators to focus on the protagonist's emotional structure of "no negative emotions," and try to jump out of the pessimistic emotional framework. 2. 242 The content of this sample can be summarized into five types of identification: "sense of security", "body image", "ability", "self-seeking", and "identity" accordingto the number of samples from high to low. 3. Within the overall number of self-identity picture books, there is a problem of imbalance in the gender ratio of roles. Male protagonists are obviously more than female protagonists: (1) The gender of the author affects the gender of the protagonist, especially for male creators. (2) The type of the protagonist affects the sex of the protagonist, and the sex ratio between animals and other types of plants is even greater than that of humans. (3) Self-Identity type affects the gender of the role. Only the"identity" type sample has a higher proportion of female protagonists than men. The other four types all have a higher proportion of male protagonists than females, especially the "ability" type. (4) Social issues may be a factor that affects the gender ratio of children's books in the library. 4. From the perspective of educational content, the content of gender education in self-identity picture books is becoming more and more diverse: (1)The content of gender education is more diverse. In addition to feminist issues, there are more educational topics such as gay-marriage, multiple genders, and respect for different gender temperaments. (2) Character design is beginning to break through gender stereotypes. In character design, occupation and appearance are no longer restricted by gender. 5. Self-identification picture books can be summarized into twelve major styles:"Fairytale cartoon characteristics" as the largest style, and "decorative patterning characteristics" and "comic temperament" both belong to the second largest style characteristics. 6. Child-oriented is an important consideration for self-identification of the style of picture books. 7. The publishing country and region influence the distribution of style types, and the distribution of styles in Asia is more evenly distributed. 8.The post-production of photography and the assistance of 3D drawing software technology make the drawing forms of picture books more diverse.This research suggests that authors, publishers, and book selectors should maintain a balanced gender ratio of the protagonists in the content of children’s picture books. Parents and teachers can select books according to the classification of self-identification types in this research according to the problems encountered by children, and recommend follow-up Researchers value the proportions of the new style.
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自我認同, 書目療法, 兒童圖畫書, 性別, 風格, bibliotherapy, children's picture book, gender, self-identity, style
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