國中生對老人的態度之研究---焦點團體訪談法

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2003

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本研究主要探討國中生對老人的態度。其研究目的有四: 一、 經由焦點團體訪談瞭解國中生對老人的概念。 二、 經由焦點團體訪談瞭解國中生對老人的態度。 三、 比較國中生與老人相處經驗多寡對老人的態度之不同。 四、 探討焦點團體訪談運用於國中生以作為研究工具之可行性。 本研究採用焦點團體訪談探討國中生對老人的態度。根據研究動機及研究目的,本研究採立意取樣,依照參與者與老人相處經驗的多寡、性別、不同班級原則共招募四個焦點團體,每個團體由五至六名參與者所組成,各進行1小時共四次的焦點團體訪談。 本研究流程包括:準備焦點團體、進行焦點團體訪談、資料分析、撰寫研究報告。 本研究之研究結論為: 一、 參與者對老人的概念呈現多元的面貌。包括外表、心理及人格特質、年齡、生活及社會關係等方面。參與者自己的想法及他們週遭的人、事、物都是他們對老人概念形成的來源。 二、 參與者對老人持較正向的態度。在老人的生理方面,參與者提出多項負向的描述,且存有刻板化的印象。參與者對老人心理、老人人格特質兩方面是正向與負向的態度兩者兼具。對老人人際互動持較正向的態度。參與者對老人的家庭生活傾向於持正向的態度並肯定老人對家庭與社會的貢獻。 三、 參與者與老人相處經驗的多寡與品質,與其對老人的態度有明顯的關連性。與老人相處經驗較多的參與者比與老人相處經驗較少的參與者對老人有較正向的態度。 四、 本研究佐證焦點團體以國中生為參與者之可行性。 本研究依據研究發現與結論對學校、家庭、媒體、政府當局以及未來之研究提出建議。
This research project was generally concentrating on the attitudes of junior high school students toward elders. The four goals were: 1. To understand the concepts of junior high school students toward elders through focus group interviews. 2. To understand the attitudes of junior high school students toward elders through focus group interviews. 3. Compare the different attitudes of junior high school students toward elders from the different degrees of experiences between them. 4. Discuss the possibility of using focus group interviews on junior high school students as a research tool. This research used focus group interviews to understand the attitudes of junior high school students toward elders. According to the purpose and the objective of the research, this study used purposive sampling to investigate the participants. The researcher divides the participants into four focus groups by their genders, their classes, and different degrees of experiences with elders. Each group was composed by five to six members with one hour interview. The procedure of this research included: prepared the focus groups; proceeded focus group interviews; interpreted data; wrote the research paper. The conclusions of the investigation were: 1. The participants’ conceptions toward elders diverse significantly. Their conceptions included appearances, mental status, personalities, age, and experiences in the society. The participants’ personal opinions and living experiences were what they formed their conceptions toward elders. 2. Overall, the participants possessed more positive attitudes toward elders. On the level of elderly physiology, the participants proposed many negative descriptions and have many stereotypes toward elders. The participants held both positive and negative opinions on elders’ psychological status and personal qualities. The participants tended to hold more positive attitudes toward elders’ family lives and recognized the contributions of elders toward families and societies. 3. The quality and the quantity of the experiences between the participants and elders significantly influenced the participants’ attitudes toward elders. The more the participants related to elders, the more positive attitudes the participants held toward elders. 4. This study confirmed that there were great possibilities for using junior high school students as participants during focus group interviews. This research will propose recommendations to schools, families, medias, governments and future investigations according to its findings and conclusions.

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國中生, 老人, 態度, 焦點團體訪談法, junior high school students, attitudes, the elderly, focus group interview

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