大學培養理念人特質及環境期許之調查研究-以國立台灣師範大學為例 Study for Creating Characteristics of Men of Ideas and Environmental Expectation in University

Abstract
近幾個世紀以來,大學之理念與目的趨向複雜多元,大學的角色因而不斷地在改變,大學一直在許多二元價值中與社會不斷的衝突甚至妥協,但大學仍有其不變的價值以及教育理念。本研究旨在探討:大學所培養理念人(Men of Ideas)應有之特質與理念為何?大學校園潛在教育情境影響理念人特質養成之向度為何?學生對大學校園情境之環境期待為何?進而,由學生之環境期待結果,推論環境之教育價值以及學習場景經營之方向。 基於上述問題,本研究著重由「人」的特質角度出發;首先,基於「大學校園應產出怎樣的理念人?」做為內容分析主要依據,文獻類別有大學本質、大學理念、大學教育政策、大學責任、博雅教育、教養、公民德性、成功學習、大學知識社群、知識分子、理念人特質等十一類,由內容分析法歸納出理念人之五個核心特向度、十八項特質,並以此發展「大學校園空間情境與理念人特質養成之調查」問卷,以國立台灣師範大學學生作為研究母群,以叢集抽樣蒐集問卷數據,以統計分析探討「個人背景」、「校園情境期許環境特質」、「理念人特質期許向度」三個變項間之相關性。 問卷調查統計結果如下: 1. 學生於大學校園學習情境投入程度平均值最高前三項依序為:教室上課、參與活動、圖書館讀書情境。 2. 「性別」、「社團幹部經驗」、與「宿舍生活經驗」在不同學習情境之參與度有顯著差異,而「學群」在不同大學情境之參與度並無顯著差異。 3. 學生對於理念人養成之特質期許強度依序為:專業>人際關係>社會>品格>學術。 4. 整體而言,「性別」、「社團幹部經驗」、「宿舍生活經驗」在理念人養成之特質期許強度有顯著差異;而「學群」、「年級」、「打工經驗」在理念人養成之特質期許強度並無顯著差異。 5. 在大學各學習情境中,學生對期許成為理念人之特質強度統計。 6. 在大學各學習情境中,學生對環境評價之期待向度統計。 7. 學生認為最適合理念人養成的情境為參與團體活動之情境。 8. 學生對培養理念人各特質所期待之環境評價向度統計。 最後,依據上述結果提出在大學校園環境經營,應軟硬兼施。從教育理念出發,應建立其不變的核心價值,培養位社會所用之「理念人」;在大學校園空間層面,提出空間情境經營向度以及以永續思維打造校園空間之經營策略,期能提供大學校園規劃之參考。
In the past centuries, the ideas and goals of universities have become diversified and gotten complicated. Thus, the role of university has been constantly changed accordingly. The universities have been involved in many 2-aspect values and conflicts occurred in the society, even have to compromise to the situations. Nevertheless, universities still shall maintain their values and the ideology of education which shall not be various with time. The goals of this study are: What are the characteristics and ideas equipped by the men of ideas, who are educating by the universities? How does the educating environment in campus would affect the creating of men of ideas characteristics? What the university students expect to the environment of campus? Furthermore, based on the results regarding to the students’ expectations of campus, the education values of environment and the guides to create learning environment will be discussed.   Following to the above mentioned questions, the study will focus on “people”. First, the content analysis will be based on the “What kind of men of ideas shall be created from universities?” The literatures can be divided into following 11 groups: the nature of university, the ideas of university, university’s education policy, university’s responsibilities, accomplishments, culture, citizenship and morality, learning successfully, university’s knowledge communities, well-educated persons, and the characteristics of men of ideas. Based on the content analysis results, 5 main aspects and 18 features of men of ideas are identified. And the “Survey for university campus special environment and the creating of men of ideas” questionnaire is designed and survey is conducted to students in National Taiwan Normal University. The data from questionnaires are collected by cluster sampling and analyzed statistically in order to discuss the relationship among “personal background”, “expectation of campus environment” and “expected aspects of characteristics of men of ideas.”   The results derived from questionnaires are as followed: 1. In average, the top 3 learning environments which students involving the most are, in sequence, classroom lecturing, activities participating and studying in library. 2. The is a significant participation level of different learning environments with respect to “sex”, “experiences of students’ clubs” and “experiences of living in dorms”. And the is no significant participation level of learning environment with respect to “studying groups ”. 3. The most expected characteristics of men of ideas to be created are, in sequence, professionalism, social relations, society, morality and academics. 4. Overall, there is a significant difference on the level of expectations of creating the characteristics of men of ideas with respect to “sex”, “experiences of students’ clubs” and “experiences of living in dorms” and there is no significant difference on the level of expectations of creating the characteristics of men of ideas with respect to “studying groups”, “years”, and “experience of working par time”. 5. In all the learning environments in university, analyze the level of characteristics of men of ideas which students expect to be. 6. In all the learning environments in university, analyze the expectation aspects of environment evaluation from students. 7. Students believe that the most appropriate environment for creating men of ideas is participating group activities. 8. Analyze the aspects regarding to the expected environment evaluation in order to creating the characteristics of being men of ideas.   Finally, the results obtained above indicated that university shall balance both the hardware and software within a campus. Starting from education ideas, university shall identify its core values which shall not be changed with time and creating the men of ideas which can contribute to the society. As for the layout of a campus, the operation strategies regarding to the special environment aspects and creating a campus with sustainable thoughts are provided, hoping which would be helpful when designing and planning the university campus.
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Keywords
大學理念, 高等教育, 理念人, 大學校園, 潛在課程, 境教, university ideas, higher education, men of ideas, university campus, hidden curriculum, educating by scenario
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