TPRS在泰國國際學校小學華語教學之應用 The Application of TPRS Method in Teaching Elementary Chinese in an International School in Thailand

Lin, Kuan-Fan
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TPRS全名為Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling,它是由TPR (Total Physical Response)發展而來的。TPR教學法是由心理學家James Asher提出來的一套學習理論,透過「指令-動作」的方式,讓學習者先理解意思後再給予回應,減輕了語言表達給予初學者帶來的壓力,Krashen(1987)指出,學習者在靜默期時(silent period),藉由單方面的聽,也能理解輸入的知識,進而建構自己的語言認知,等到有足夠的語言能力後就會開始說出來。TPR教學法同時也符合了聽先於說、理解再表達的語言學習規律。而TPRS則是由一位西班牙語老師Blaine Ray通過自己的方法結合TPR所創造出來的一套教學法,他利用了講故事的方式,彌補了TPR教學法在描述事物以及敘述事情的不足。 研究者在泰國A國際學校擔任華語教師期間,嘗試了各種各樣的教學策略,其中也對TPRS教學法做了理論研究與調查學習。本研究先探討研究了TPR與TPRS在國內外的教學研究,再分析研究者任教的學校背景、學生特點以及泰國華語發展現況等等,接著再分析使用的教材如何與TPRS教學法相結合,進而編寫教學教案和設計教學內容,最後進行教學實踐。本研究採用學生調查問卷、教學實例分析、隨堂測驗、期中與期末測驗、課堂觀察以及教師自我評鑑等方式,試圖從多面向去論證TPRS在泰國國際學校小學華語的應用可行性,以及對TPRS教學法的優缺點作出陳述。
TPRS, as known as Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling. It is begun from TPR. (Total Physical Response) TPR is a learning method which is created by Dr. James J Asher. The way of "commands-actions" encourage learners to response with their physical actions, and it helps language beginners to reduce pressure of oral skill. Krashen(1987) stated that when students are having the silent period time, they still can understand the in-put information by listening, and to develop own language cognition. Learners will start to speak out when they reach a certain level of comprehension. TPRS method is also in accord with the rule of learning language, listening before speaking and comprehension before expression. TPRS was created by a Spanish teacher Blaine Ray. He combined storytelling to help learners to use target language, phrases and commonly used words in story and conversation. As a Chinese teacher in an international school in Thailand, author tried various strategies of teaching in class。 During that time, author also studied and researched theories about TPRS. In this paper, author first study teaching research about TPR and TPRS at home and abroad. Secondly, we analyze school background, students and current situation of Chinese learning in Thailand. Furthermore, we look into our teaching materials to see how to integrate TPRS into teaching plan and teaching content. Lastly, we implement teaching practice to collect more practical information. In the study, student questionnaire, student classroom observation and teacher self-evaluation are used to demonstrate and prove the feasibility of TPRS teaching approach in an international school in Thailand, and to discuss advantages and disadvantages of TPRS.
TPR, TPRS, 第二語言學習, TPR, TPRS, Second language learning