探討平板電腦在任務型語言教學法中對小組合作歷程的影響 Exploring How Tablet PC Facilitates Small Group Collaboration in a Task-Based Language Learning Classroom

Date
2018
Authors
許瀞尹
Hsu, Ching-Yin
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Abstract
隨著資訊科技的發展,教師得以提供學生更加多元且有助學習的教學環境及資源。近年來,如何運用電腦輔助小組合作學習(Computer-supported Collaborative Learning)成為一重要研究課題,然而甚少研究著重於探討學生如何在平板電腦的輔助下,透過與同儕間的互動及討論來進行英語學習並建構知識。因此,本研究使用質性研究方法,旨在討論臺灣高中生在進行小組合作學習時的互動歷程,以及探討平板電腦如何輔助小組協同合作學習。 本研究對象來自北臺灣九位高中學生。在為期兩個多月的課堂中,他們分成三組進行小組活動,透過用任務型語言教學法所設計的課堂活動(task),探討與英雄故事以及世界飲食文化有關的主題。研究者觀察且記錄課堂活動,並收集學生進行小組討論時的對話內容,將其打成逐字稿後進行後續分析。除課堂互動紀錄外,研究者亦透過學生的課後心得日誌以及訪談內容了解學生學習狀況及歷程。 結果顯示學生在與組員共同建構知識時,有固定的互動歷程。小組討論多從選定討論焦點、發現問題或分享知識開始,並依此為基礎而後更深入地探討,透過提出想法、闡述內容、協商及說服等方式來達成小組共識。除了知識面向,小組在進行合作學習時,也透過自我以及小組調節,維持小組學習的效率。在小組互動中,平板電腦的可攜性使得組員間更便於分享資訊,組員除了直接針對網路蒐集的資料做討論外,亦會即時利用網路溝通平台傳送連結,促進溝通效率。更重要的是,平板電腦扮演知識庫的角色,在建構知識和完成指定任務的過程中,組員得以使用平板電腦或線上字典查詢相關資料,再針對蒐集的資料進行討論及釐清。
From the early 1960s on, technological advances have opened up new opportunities for teachers to engage learners in more facilitative learning environments. Although how learning unfolds and in what ways technologies support learning have been studied in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL), there is relatively fewer research designed to investigate mobile-assisted collaborative learning practices, especially in language learning contexts. To address the gap, the present study examines EFL adolescents’ interactional process as well as the affordances of technological tools in mobile-assisted collaborative learning tasks. In the study, nine participants were recruited from a high school in Northern Taiwan. In a two-month period, they were asked to work in groups of three to explore two topics, including heroes and food and culture, with their tablet PCs. To capture the participants’ interactions while collaborating with learning peers, their face-to-face interactions were recorded for further analysis. Other data, including class observations, students’ weekly journals, and semi-structured interviews were also collected to increase the trustworthiness of the study. The results showed that learners followed certain participatory pattern starting with the emergence of problems, the identification of focus, or the sharing of knowledge regarding epistemic dimension of collaborative learning. Subsequent to the establishment of common ground, interactional moves aiming at generating, elaborating, and negotiating ideas followed so as to accomplish assigned tasks. It should be noted that the identified interactional pattern was not a linear, but a circular one. In other words, after the actions attempting to create shared understanding or generate collaborative actions, actions aiming at identifying focus, pointing out problems, and/or sharing knowledge might emerge if necessary and helpful for completing the tasks. In addition to epistemic dimension, regulative dimension was also examined. Three situations where regulative actions recurrently occurred were found in our data, and these regulative actions helped facilitate the development and maintenance of collaborative learning. Lastly, in terms of technological affordances, it was discovered that mobile technologies facilitated collaborative learning by highlighting focus, pinpointing sources, and thus prompting conceptual changes. Other affordances included portability and connectivity of mobile devices and the Internet as a knowledge bank.
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英語為第二外語學習者, 行動科技輔助語言學習, 合作學習, 任務型語言教學法, EFL learners, mobile-assisted language learning, collaborative learning, task-based language teaching
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