國中生自尊、希望感、社會支持、生活壓力與心理健康之關係研究 The relationship among middle-school students’ self-esteem, sense of hope, social support, life stress and mental health

Date
2015
Authors
伍淑玉
Wu, Shu-Yu
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Abstract
本研究欲探討自尊、希望感、社會支持及生活壓力,與國中生心理健康之間的關聯,並檢視不同性別國中生的心理健康預測情形。研究對象為785位台灣國中生(男=364,女=421),所有參與者需完成一份由Rosenberg自尊量表、希望感量表、社會支持量表、生活壓力量表,以及正向心理健康量表組成的問卷。本研究分析結果顯示:中學階段男生在自尊、希望感的表現高於女生,亦有較高的心理健康;女生則是在社會支持的表現高於男生;不同性別所感受到的生活壓力,則無顯著差異。整體而言,自尊、希望感、社會支持與生活壓力,可共同預測66.5%的國中生心理健康。不同性別呈現相異的心理健康模式:在男性模式中,四個變項的預測力高低依序為:社會支持、希望感、自尊與生活壓力;在女性模式中,變項的預測力高低依序為:希望感、生活壓力、社會支持與自尊。然而,後續進行之多群組分析結果顯示:不同性別國中生的心理健康模式,其結構路徑未達顯著差異。 本研究之主要發現歸納如下: 一、自尊、希望感、社會支持及生活壓力,與國中生心理健康的五個面向,主要透過三組典型因素,達顯著相關。第一組典型相關顯示「自尊」、「希望感」,與心理健康之「樂觀進取」、「人際關係」兩個面向有密切關聯;第二組典型相關顯示「社會支持」與心理健康之「家庭和諧」面向有密切關聯;第三組典型相關顯示「生活壓力」與心理健康之「情緒平衡」面向有密切關聯。 二、自尊、希望感、社會支持及生活壓力,與國中生之心理健康有顯著相關;所有變項可共同預測國中生心理健康,達顯著水準。 三、希望感是一個強力的預測指標,對不同性別國中生之心理健康皆然。 四、不同性別國中生的心理健康模式,呈現相異的內在趨勢;然而,多群組分析結果指出:兩個模式的預測路徑,未達顯著差異。 五、與其他變項同時考量之下,自尊對國中生心理健康的預測力不如預期;自尊與心理健康之間,可能有其他變項的效果,削弱了自尊的影響力。建議未來的研究可進一步釐清這些因子與心理健康之間的中介、調節效果。
This study explored how self-esteem, sense of hope, social support, and life stress influenced on middle-school students’ mental health. 785 students of secondary school in Taiwan(male=364, female=421)were research subjects, and filled in questionnaire composed of Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, edition of Children’s Hope Scale, Social Support Scale, Life Stress Scale, and Positive Mental Health Scale. The analysis revealed: Males showed higher scores significantly on self-esteem, sense of hope, and mental health than females. Females performed well in social support than males did. For life stress scores, there was no difference between genders. Overall, self-esteem, sense of hope, social support, and life stress predicted 66.5% of middle-school students’ mental health. Furthermore, different genders showed different patterns. In male's model, the most predictive variable was social support, and then were sense of hope, self-esteem, and life stress. In female's model, the sequence was: sense of hope, life stress, social support, and self-esteem. However, the result of multi-group analysis revealed there were no significant differences between paths of two structures. The main findings of the present study were summarized as follows: 1. Self-esteem, sense of hope, social support, and life stress correlated with five-phase model of middle-school students' mental health mainly through three typical factors. The first set of canonical correlation was composed of "self-esteem" and "sense of hope", which highly correlated with "optimism" and "interpersonal relationship". The second set was "social support" correlated with "family harmony". The third set was "life stress" correlated with "emotional balance". 2. Self-esteem, sense of hope, social support and life stress associated with middle-school students’ mental health significantly. The four variables predicted mental health simultaneously and all reached the significant level. 3. Sense of hope was a strong predictor of middle-school students’ mental health for both genders. 4. The models predicting mental health of different genders presented distinct tendency, whereas the multi-group analysis revealed there were no significant differences between the paths of two structures. 5. Considering factors mentioned in this study simultaneously, the result showed the predictive power of self-esteem was not as expected. There might be effects of other variables between self-esteem and mental health, therefore the influence of self-esteem was weaken. It was suggested future researches could study the mediate and moderate effects between these factors and mental health.
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Keywords
心理健康, 自尊, 希望感, 社會支持, 性別, mental health, self-esteem, sense of hope, social support, gender
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