領導部屬交換關係對員工工作壓力之影響 The Study of the Relationship between LMX and Employees’ Job Stress

Date
2017
Authors
蔡欣容
Tsai, Hsin-Jung
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Abstract
現代人工作時間長、負荷重,人際互動關係複雜,加上認知付出與回饋不對等,造成龐大的工作壓力,這些現象都是現今職場離職重大因素。現今公司創造利潤仰賴的是員工的知識,故員工就是公司最有價值的資產。因此,避免有價值的員工大量流失,成為公司重大的課題。本研究期許能促使領導者更重視員工想法及感受,發展出彼此契合且信賴的關係,冀望企業產出更高價值的經濟交換效益。 領導部屬交換理論(Leader-Member Exchange, LMX)近年來發現 LMX 關係中存在矛盾。身為一位領導者,其個人、社會及組織資源有限,例如:時間、心力或是職權等,在有限資源中,領導者無法將所擁有的資源平均分配給每位部屬,不同的資源分配便造成員工間工作壓力的差異。因此本研究的目的為(一)探討不同領導部屬交換關係的形成原因。(二)探討驅動領導部屬交換關係對員工工作壓力之影響因素。 本研究採用質化研究取向之個案研究法,以深度訪談的方式,探討身為圈內人部屬及圈外人部屬的工作壓力影響情況。依個案公司台北總部服務5年以上並具擔任4年以上主任經驗之15位基層主管之直屬部屬進行LMX 7關係品質量表檢測,以了解部屬知覺與該主任關係後,再次篩選出直屬關係存在2年以上並由同一位主任領導之1位圈內人部屬和一位圈外人部屬,共計5組,此10位部屬為受訪者作為主要研究對象進行研究,研究發現結論為: (一)不同領導部屬交換關係的形成原因:低品質的領導部屬交換關係,主要是因為受限於情感因素上,其中重複性最高原因的是與主管個性不契合,具體事項諸如與主管價值觀相左、被主管主觀定義的派系不同,以及主管的個人喜好問題等;而高品質的領導部屬交換關係,主要建立在情感因素及貢獻因素上,其中重複性最高的原因是員工的交際手腕,諸如適時體察主管想法、主動拉近與主管的距離。 (二)驅動領導部屬交換關係對員工工作壓力之直接影響因素:1.人際影響:圈外人專業較不容易受到信任,較容易受到主管的不尊重對待;圈內人感受到較大的競爭壓力,被主管賦予較高的期待。2.心理影響:圈外人會謹慎的處理事情,在意別人的眼光,尤其是主管的看法,當感覺不被尊重、工作缺乏公平、沒有晉升機會,感受到付出與回饋失衡時,就會產生挫折感,甚至懷疑自己;圈內人在工作績效及晉升上的自我要求高,若考績不盡理想會產生挫折感,另外,面對主管的期許,除了工作負荷的無助感,也會因負荷過重而產生倦怠感。3.生理影響:不管是圈內外人對工作都有相當程度的負荷量,產生心力交瘁及工作倦怠感。 (三)驅動領導部屬交換關係對工作壓力之間接影響因素:1.環境影響:圈外人常被交代較無價值的瑣碎工作,能拿到的資源及機會相對較低;圈內人則會花時間在維持與主管好的關係上。2.認知失調:圈外人提到主管分工不公平、對於工作表現上的評價不夠客觀,工作上也不被認同,對應的工作貢獻與回報就不對等;圈內人認為工作的產出變成是在幫主管做績效,故也表示工作貢獻與回報不對等。
People in modern day work long hours and have high responsibilities, complex interpersonal relationships, and unbalanced cognition paying and returning in workplace, which create great working pressure to them. These phenomenon are the main reasons for people to leave the jobs today. Today’s companies rely on their employees’ knowledge to make profits, so the employees are the most valuable assets for them. The study promote the leaders to pay more attention to employees’ feelings and opinions so that it can create a relationship that is trustable and supportable between each other, and the research hopes the companies could develop the most valuable economical exchange benefits. Recently, the theory of Leader-Member Exchange (Leader-Member Exchange, LMX) found that there are contradictions between LMX relationships. As the leaders, they have the limited personal, social, and organizational resources. For examples, times, mental efforts, authorities…etc. Within the limited resources, leaders cannot equally distribute all of them to each single employee. Those different resources distributions creates different working pressures among employees. Therefore, the purposes of this study are: (1) discuss the reasons for forming different LMX relationships. (2) discuss the effects of working pressure for employees under LMX relationships. This study adopts qualitative research orientation based on individual cases, and it uses the method of interviewing to explore how working pressure could influence In-Group and Out-Group employees within the company. Based on the individual case, the study draws from 15 directed subordinators in the headquarters of Taipei, to conduct a test of LMX 7 relationship quality scale. This study filters the sample with those who have the direct relationship with their supervisors over 2 years, and pick one In-Group employee and one Out-Group employee under each five specific supervisors. In the result, the total of the 10 subordinators are the main focuses of the study. The findings and conclusion of the study are: (1) The reasons for forming different LMX relationships: Within the low quality’s Leader-member exchange relationships, the main reason is limited on the emotional factors, and the most repetitive reasons are employees could not fit into their supervisors’ personalities. The specific examples are having different opinions with their supervisors and having different personal preference with their supervisors. Within the high quality’s LMX relationships, it mainly depends on emotions’ and contributions’ factors, and the most repetitive reasons are the social skills of the specific employee, such as observing the thoughts of their supervisors’ on the right time, and being active to shorten the distance between them and their supervisors. (2) The direct effects of working pressure for employees under LMX relationships: 1. the effects of interpersonal relationships: The professions of the Out-group employees are hard to get the trust from their supervisors and easy to be treated differently from them. In-group people feel more competitive stress and have more expectations from their supervisors. 2. The effects of mental factors: the Out-group employees will do things carefully and care others’ thoughts, especially from their supervisors. Those employees will feel frustrated when they are feeling unrespect and missing the fairness from work jobs and promotion, such as feeling unbalanced between contributing and rewarding. In-group employees have high level of self-demanding on job performance and promotion, so they will be frustrated if they don’t have good job grades. (3) The indirect effects of working pressure for employees under LMX relationships: 1. the effects of the environmental factors: Out-group employees usually are asked to do some relatively invaluable and unimportant jobs, so they have relatively lower chances to get enough resources from the jobs. In-group employees will instead spend more time with their supervisors to keep the good relationships between them. 2. Cognition imbalanced: Out-group employees reported that when their supervisors have unfair job distribution, they will correspond to inequivalent work contributions and returns. In-group employees believe that the productions of jobs become to help their supervisors to gain performances, so they also said the work contributions and returns are inequivalent.
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Keywords
領導部屬交換關係, 圈內人, 圈外人, 工作壓力, LMX, In-Group employee, Out-Group employee, Working pressure
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