母親回應教養與學齡前兒童奮力控制及攻擊行為之關聯:交叉延宕模式的分析

Date
2021-12-??
Authors
程景琳
鄭蓉
陳虹仰
Ching-Ling Cheng, Jung Cheng, Hung-Yang Chen
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教育研究與評鑑中心
Center for Educational Research and Evaluation
Abstract
研究目的本研究旨在透過交叉延宕模式的分析,探討母親溫暖回應、學齡前兒童奮力控制及其攻擊行為在幼兒三歲至五歲之間的縱貫關聯性。研究設計/方法/取徑本研究使用「臺灣幼兒發展調查資料庫」36月齡組樣本第一、二、三波的資料。研究參與者為學齡前兒童的母親,他們在三波施測時分別進行問卷填答。幼兒(N = 1,144,女生佔49.4%)在此三波施測時分別為三、四、五歲。在控制幼兒性別及家庭社經地位的情況下,本研究採用結構方程模式檢視母親溫暖回應、幼兒奮力控制和攻擊行為於兩年間的長期關聯性。研究發現或結論研究結果顯示,母親溫暖回應正向預測幼兒隔年的奮力控制,而幼兒奮力控制亦正向預測母親隔年的溫暖回應,顯示兩者之間具有雙向關聯。然而,母親的溫暖回應雖負向預測幼兒隔年的攻擊行為,但幼兒的攻擊行為並沒有顯著預測母親隔年的溫暖回應;顯示在母親溫暖回應和幼兒攻擊行為的關聯中,僅出現單向的家長影響力。本研究亦發現一個顯著的中介途徑,即幼兒三歲時的奮力控制,會透過母親在幼兒四歲時所展現的溫暖回應,進而預測幼兒在五歲時的攻擊行為。另外,雖然幼兒四歲時的奮力控制顯著負向預測其五歲時的攻擊行為,但母親在幼兒三歲時所展現的溫暖回應,透過幼兒四歲時的奮力控制,進而預測其五歲時的攻擊行為之中介途徑僅達邊緣顯著。研究原創性/價值雖然過去已有研究探討臺灣母親溫暖回應與學齡前兒童奮力控制或其攻擊行為的關聯性,但因為這些研究幾乎皆使用橫斷資料,因而難以確認變項之間的前後關聯。為能補足這方面的不足,本研究透過代表性樣本以及縱貫設計探究此議題。本研究發現,母親對幼兒所展現的溫暖回應與孩子未來有較高程度的奮力控制及較低程度的攻擊傾向有關,而幼兒的奮力控制亦是母親得以提供溫暖回應的前置因素。本研究也同時發現,幼兒攻擊行為並未顯著預測母親隔年的溫暖回應,但此關聯性是否因孩子的發展階段而有所差異,值得後續研究進一步澄清。教育政策建議或實務意涵藉由親職教育教導母親具體表達其關照孩子需求的態度及行為,將得以提升孩子之後的自我調節能力及減少其外化性行為問題;無論是提升母親的溫暖回應或是孩子的奮力控制,都將有助於二者之正向循環,而增進幼兒的良好適應。
PurposeThe current study aimed to examine the longitudinal associations between maternal responsiveness and preschoolers' effortful control and aggression utilizing a cross-lagged analysis approach.Design/methodology/approachThe current research used data from "Kids in Taiwan: National Longitudinal Study of Child Development & Care." Survey data collected in the first to the third waves of the study from mothers of a 36-month-old cohort were analyzed. Preschoolers (N = 1,144,49.4% girls) were three, four, and five years old during the three investigations, respectively. Controlling for the effects of child gender and family socioeconomic status, the present study examined the associations between maternal responsiveness and preschoolers' effortful control and aggression across two years using structural equation modeling.Findings/resultsThe results revealed positive bidirectional associations between maternal responsiveness and preschoolers' effortful control, suggesting both parent and child effects between the two. However, while maternal responsiveness negatively predicted preschoolers' aggression one-year later, the reverse was not true: The influence of maternal responsiveness on preschooler' s aggression was one-way. Moreover, a significant mediation was found: Preschoolers' effortful control at the age of three was predictive of enhanced maternal responsiveness when preschoolers were four years old, which in turn predicted preschoolers' lower levels of aggression at the age of five. Notably, whereas preschoolers' effortful control at the age of four negatively predicted their aggressive tendency one year later, the indirect effect of maternal responsiveness when preschoolers were three years old on preschoolers' aggression at the age of five via preschoolers' effortful control at the age of four was only marginally significant.Originality/valueAlthough prior studies conducted in Taiwan have investigated the associations between maternal responsiveness and preschoolers' effortful control or aggression, most of them utilized concurrent data and thus prevented us from understanding the temporal associations between these constructs. To address the gap, the current research examined this issue by means of a nationally representative sample along with a longitudinal design. The findings demonstrated that maternal responsiveness associated with preschoolers' better effortful control and lower aggressive tendency one year later. In addition, preschoolers' effortful control served as an antecedent of maternal responsiveness. Although preschoolers' aggression did not significantly predict maternal responsiveness a year later, whether the significance of this association will be contingent on children's developmental stage deserves further clarification.Suggestions/implicationsParenting education that teaches mothers how to express their care for their child(ren) could increase young children's self-regulation and reduce their aggressive behavior. Training to increase mothers' warm responsiveness or children's effortful control could contribute to their reciprocal associations and promote children's psychological adjustment.
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