幼兒成就目標向度的涵蓋性、特定性與普遍性的初探

Date
2020-06-??
Authors
吳中勤
Chung-Chin Wu
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教育研究與評鑑中心
Center for Educational Research and Evaluation
Abstract
研究目的本研究主要目的在於,透過觀察來檢視學習區中,幼兒可能抱持的幼兒成就目標向度,並進一步分析幼兒成就目標的特定性與普遍性。研究設計/方法/取徑本研究以南部地區幼兒園8 個班級的4—6 歲幼兒為對象,採用幼兒六向度成就目標檢核表,分別在各班的積木區與益智區觀察了367 與348 人次。扣掉無效觀察結果後,以積木區的271 筆和益智區的286 筆有效觀察資料,進行質化描述與卡方適合度檢定。研究發現或結論研究結果顯示,在積木區與益智區皆觀察到幼兒表現出與六向度成就目標有關的語言和行為表現。進一步進行卡方檢定的結果顯示,在積木區與益智區中,幼兒六向度成就目標的比例有所不同,其中,在積木區,趨向任務目標、趨向自我目標與趨向他人目標的比例較高。相反的,在益智區,逃避任務目標、逃避自我目標與逃避他人目標的比例較高。結果可能意謂著,整體而言,幼兒六向度成就目標具有普遍性,但部份成就目標向度則有其特定性。研究原創性/價值國、內外相關研究皆缺乏對幼兒成就目標的討論。極為有限的國外研究顯示,幼兒可能僅抱持四向度成就目標,但幼兒成就目標的特定性或普遍性仍不清楚。本研究透過深度觀察發現,不論是在積木區或益智區,皆可從幼兒的語言和行為表現中,發現幼兒抱持六向度成就目標的證據。關於幼兒成就目標普遍性與特定性的發現,為國內、外相關研究首見,可作為未來研究者覆驗或設計幼兒成就目標量表的參考,甚至可作為未來進行幼兒成就目標長期追蹤研究分析的基礎。
PurposeThe main purpose of this study was to understand possibledimensionalities of achievement goals that preschoolers perceivedthrough observation. Further, the specificity and generality ofachievement goals were examined through statistical analysis.Design/methodology/approachYoung children aged between 4 and 6 years were recruited fromthe same class in eight public and private kindergartens in SouthernTaiwan. In total, 367 and 348 observations in the brick and intellectareas, respectively, were obtained for preschoolers by using sixdimensionalachievement goal checklist. After removing invalidobservations, 271 and 286 observations were qualitatively describedand analyzed using chi-square appropriateness analysis.Findings/resultsThe results revealed that the observed conversations and behaviorswere related to six-dimensional achievement goals in both areas.Furthermore, the proportions of approach-task goals, approach-selfgoals, and approach-others goals were higher in the brick area thanin the intellect area. By contrast, the proportions of avoid-task goals,avoid-self goals, and avoid-others goals were higher in the intellectarea. In general, preschoolers’ six-dimensional achievement goalsfeatured generality as well as specificity to a certain extent.Originality/valueFew studies have discussed preschoolers’ achievement goals.Limited research has demonstrated that preschoolers may posit fourdimensionalachievement goals, but the specificity and generalityof these achievement goals remain unclear. The present study foundevidence supporting six-dimensional achievement goals amongpreschoolers through in-depth observation of their language andbehaviors in both brick and intellect areas. The specificity andgenerality of preschoolers’ achievement goal have not been proposedin other studies. The results of the present study may serve as areference for examining and designing a scale for preschoolers’achievement goals. Moreover, the results may form the basis of futurelongitudinal studies.
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