臺灣六至十五歲低視力兒童之繪畫分析 Drawing analysis on 6-15 years old low vision children in Taiwan

Date
2019
Authors
邱寶儀
Yau, Po-Yee
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Abstract
低視力兒童由於先天視力不足,感知覺統合並不如一般明眼兒童,嚴重的影響了他們日常生活中所有活動,包括與認知、社交、情緒相關的發展。由於視力不佳,低視力兒童大多缺乏主動探索物品的動機,也很少參與繪畫活動。然而,現存視障藝術教育資源的缺乏,導致低視力兒童從小便失去適當的學習機會。本研究針對臺灣國內低視力兒童的繪畫作品進行分析,探討其繪畫的形式與表現特徵,並進一步提出低視力兒童藝術教育的相關建議。本研究一共蒐集來自臺灣6-15歲低視力兒童,共103份樣本,分別以年級與性別進行分組,並以圖像分析法與描述型統計歸納。研究結果顯示:低視力兒童對物件有遮蔽概念,但整體空間停留在飄浮階段;他們容易缺乏整體構圖、空間安排和物件群組與比例關係,在物件投射系統傾向使用直角投射,而使用線條大多為連續與一筆勾邊上色筆觸表現細膩;用色大多可使用三色以上;低視力兒童的繪畫表現隨著年齡發展更為成熟,但到了高年級反而退步在本研究中尚無出現明顯的陰影;表現,男生普遍在空間相關發展較成熟,女生在生物與關係表現較成熟。經研究結果分析,本研究針對低視力兒童繪畫表現與特徵歸納以下結論:(1)近距離觀察與繪畫並傾向以組合方式完成畫作、(2)可理解物件內空間概念但對大空間掌握不足、(3)部分遮蔽較群組與比例表現理想、(4)物件投射大多與全盲者表現同樣使用直角投射、(5)傾向一筆完成輪廓線並不排斥用色、(6)提早出現退步和瓶頸狀況、(7)視覺經驗是能夠表現斜角投射的關鍵、(8)視力受限但不影響進入視覺寫實階段。
With congenital visual impairment, low vision children are lack of optimate perceptual integration as the normal children. This affects their daily living activities, including development in cognitive, social and emotion aspects. In lack of good vision, low vision children tend to be lack of motivation in active exploration, including drawing activities. As there is not enough resources of art education for the visually impaired, low vision children do not have enough stimulation in art. This research is based on the drawings by low vision children in Taiwan, to analysis their drawings and find out the features and development in them. For such, it could provide further resources of the low vision children, and the suggestions to art education for the visually impaired. In this research, an amount of 103 drawings were being collected and analyzed. This is completed under graphic analysis and descriptive statistics to show the relative results. It is firstly divided into 3 age groups, and next into 2 gender groups to see the relation between different drawing features. Among all age groups, we found that low vision children can develop occlusion, but spatial representation are mainly floating, without any baseline or background. Also, there is a lack of picture composition, grouping and proportion. As in the projective system, vertical oblique projection is mainly used among all age groups. Contour lines are usually completed in one consecutive line, while colorings are in detailed with more than 3 different colors. Drawing development in low vision children improves with age, but not improving in the eldest age group. Not much shadows are seen in the majority, boys tend to draw spatial related objects better than girls, and girls develop better in life and relationships related things. In this research we conclude low vision children: 1. Draw and observe in very close distance, finish the drawing by assembling and combination. 2. Can understand spatial relation within object, but not between objects. 3. Partial occlusion presentation is better than proportion presentation, but lack of grouping presentation. 4. Tend to use vertical oblique drawing system. 5. Use one consecutive line to draw the contour, with detailed coloring but not rejecting in using colors. 6. Stop improving earlier than normal children. 7. Visual experiences is the key for oblique drawing development. 8. Visual impairment does not affect visual realism development in low vision children.
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視覺障礙, 低視力, 繪畫發展, 特徵表現, 視障藝術教育, visual impairment, low vision, drawing development, drawing features, arts education
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