Bill Readings卓越大學之探究 A Study on Bill Readings’ Excellence University

Date
2017
Authors
沈敏豪
Shen, Min-Hao
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Abstract
大學身處資訊高度發展的社會脈絡下,已不再如過去是以知識本身為目的,受到市場化趨勢的影響,大學也逐漸接受市場邏輯的概念,促使大學開始重視知識的外在目的。面對此一局勢,本研究將採文獻分析法,探究Bill Readings對於卓越大學之論述,試圖闡釋Bill Readings對卓越理念在大學教育發展的態勢,並提出可能的發展方向。 具體而言,本研究先分析大學理念發展之歷史脈絡,顯明構成大學理念發展的三個階段,並勾勒其理念應用的特徵以及轉變,依此作為探討卓越大學形成的根據。透過前述分析,本研究指出大學理念形成的歷史脈絡如下:康德的批判理性把大學看作是思想活動的典範,教育的目標為使學生具有超越蒙昧、迷信、盲從的能力,而洪堡的文化大學則把大學與民族國家相關聯,打造的是國家公民或民族主體。到了全球化時代,轉而由「卓越」理念所替代,透過一系列的操作指標和量化計算,大學越趨向跨國企業或科層化管理之運作。最後,本研究期待研究成果能夠提供現今大學教育發展另一種可能的選擇理路。
In a highly developed information society, universities are no longer knowledge-oriented as in the past. Under the influences of marketing trends, universities have gradually accepted the concept of marketing and been prompted to value extrinsic aims of knowledge. Within this context, literature analysis was employed in this study to explore Bill Readings’ discussion on university of excellence, by attempting to interpret Bill Readings’ point of view on how the concept of excellence affects the development of university education and proposing the possible future direction. More specifically, the historical context of the establishment of the developmental concepts of a university was first analyzed to delineate the three stages of this establishment, its transformation, and applications. The formation of university of excellence was investigated based on the analysis, and the observations were as follows: under Kant’s critical rationalism, a university is treated as a model of ideological activity. The aim of education is for students to gain the ability to transcend ignorance, superstition, and blind following. Humboldt's culture University associates university with the nation-state to create national citizens or nationality. In the era of globalization, the concept of Humboldt's culture University is replaced by idea of excellence. Through a series of operational indicators and quantitative calculation, universities now tend to adopt operational models from multinational corporations or bureaucratic managements. Lastly, the results of this study are intended to provide an alternative for the educational development of modern universities.
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Keywords
比爾•雷丁斯, 大學理念, 卓越大學, 後歷史大學, Bill Readings, the idea of university, excellence university, posthistorical university
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