從夾縫與探索中建構輔導工作:六所大專校院學生自治團體指導老師輔導經驗之研究 Constructing the Work of Advising through the Crevice and the Exploration-A Research on the Advisers’ Experience of Student Government in the Six Institutions

Date
2006
Authors
江慧芬
Hue-Fen Chiang
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Abstract
從夾縫與探索中建構輔導工作-六所大專校院學生自治團體指導老師輔導經驗之研究 摘 要 本研究旨在探討大專校院課外活動組學生自治團體指導老師的輔導經驗,由經驗中瞭解影響學生自治團體輔導工作的觀點與工作的內涵,以提供未來學生自治團體輔導實務上應用之參考。本研究的研究問題為:影響大專校院學生自治團體輔導工作之重要因素為何?大專校院學生自治團體之定位、角色功能為何?大專校院學生自治團體之現況與問題為何?大專校院學生自治團體指導老師輔導工作的內涵為何?大專校院學生自治團體指導老師輔導工作的角色與輔導職責為何?大專校院學生自治團體指導老師輔導之型態為何?對大專校院學生自治團體輔導工作的具體建議為何? 本研究採用質性研究方法,以目前大專校院中同時為課外活動組成員並兼任學生自治團體指導老師者為研究對象,採立意抽樣的方式,選取六位「資料豐富的個案」作為研究參與者,透過半結構式的深度訪談作為最主要的資料收集方式,本研究以處理主觀、與研究參與者建立信任關係、同儕檢核、三角檢正、研究參與者檢核、厚實敘寫等方式,以增加本研究之信實度。研究發現如下: 一、學生自治團體指導老師輔導工作之因素:包含學校自治風氣、組織文化的差異(主管領導的風格、同事間的相處、工作負荷量大)、學生因素(學生年齡成熟度、學生特質與性別)、個人背景因素(宗教信仰、人格特質、學經歷背景、家庭、性別、工作職級)。 二、學生自治團體的定位為全校性最高學生組織、具領導地位與正當學生代表性並能為學生發聲;在角色功能上為出席學校各級會議、為學生爭取權益、協助各單位推動各項事務、辦理全校性大型活動與服務全校學生。 三、學生自治團體運作上的問題包含1. 學生會定位與認同受質疑。2.學生自治團體達到學生自治的功能有待評估。3.學校對學生自治的不重視不尊重,不了解學生自治的內涵。4.學生學生自治的素養參差不齊。5. 學生會與學生議會間無法凝聚共識,相互箝制。6.學生自治團體經費收取率低。7.學生自治團體有被外界引導或介入之虞。8.學生活動的負面評價等問題。 四、學生自治團體輔導工作的內涵可歸納出三個面向: (一)信念與價值是輔導的動力。 1.以學生為中心:包含尊重學生的意見與決定;給予學習機會與發揮的空間;認同學生是需要輔導與指導;老師不要突顯自己的身份地位;以愛為出發點、要將心比心、包容學生錯誤。 2.力達教育的目的:包含肯定課外活動的價值;要學生學習做決定與負責任;體驗經驗學習的精神;學習自治之精神。 3.堅定的工作信念:具有使命感;輔導是指導老師的職責;有責任感、要投入能犧牲、凡事盡力而為;尋找工作成就感;遵守學生事務專業工作原則。 4.對學生自治的認同:包含學生是獨立自主的、學生自治團體是學校的重要角色。 5.面對挑戰的正向態度:包含不畏挫折、面對及處理之;不斷向上向外、主動積極。 (二)學生事務專業與實務的知能是輔導工作的基礎。 1.學生自治、教育心理輔導相關文獻與書籍。 2.課外組研習會及校際交流。 3.前人及同仁之傳承。 4.實務工作的經驗學習。 5.熟知大學法及學生權利相關知識。 6.學生事務專業知識。 (三)學生事務專業技能是達有效輔導的捷徑。 1.統籌領導,策略管理。 2.具多方指導的能力。 3.做學生自治的諮詢者。 4.處理衝突、解決問題。 5.建立良好的師生互動關係。 6.安排學生訓練課程。 7.輔導策略。 五、學生自治團體指導老師輔導的角色多元,可分為四種隱喻:指引的燈塔、溝通的橋樑、幕後的推手、同甘共苦的夥伴,共含十五項範疇共27種角色,如提醒者、引導者、領導者、影響者等角色。 六、因指導老師兼具行政人員與輔導人員的角色,故在職責上歸納四項行政方面的職責與十二項輔導工作方面的職責行政方面之職責,因各校文化背景環境不同,故職責的範圍不同,或是大略性的工作方向,所得知之結果,可供各校輔導工作上的參考。 七、各學校的校風、組織文化、學生特質及指導老師的個性與背景不同,故在輔導工作上展現獨特的風格,可分為學生自主型、領導型、從旁指導型、諮詢引導型、投入參與型、完全自治型,有助於一般人對學生自治團體實務輔導工作的瞭解。 本研究根據上述研究發現,針對學生自治團體指導老師、對學校與學生事務專業上提出具體建議,也對進一步研究提出建議。
Constructing the Work of Advising through the Crevice and the Exploration -A Research on the Advisers’ Experience of Student Government in the Six Institutions Hue-Fen Chiang Abstract The purpose of this research was to study the advising experiences of the student government advisers at the extra-curriculum division in six institutions. Through their experiences, to understand the perspectives and the contents of student government advising work and to provide suggestions for the practice and improvement for advising work in the future. The research questions included: what are the major impact factors to advise student government in colleges? what are the status, role and function of college student government? what are the current and the critical issues of advising student government? what are the content of student government advising work? what are the roles and the task responsibilities of the advisers? what are the advising types of the advisers? and what are the recommendations of the practice and improvement for advising student government in the future? The study was a qualitative research by means of semi-structured in-depth interview. Through purposive sampling, six advisers, who came from the extra-curriculum division in different types of college, gender, work position, and personal background, had been selected as research participants. For establishment of the trustworthiness, the methods of developing trust relationship with participants, triangulation , peer reviewing, member check, and thick description were employed. The findings of the research are: 1.Institution atmosphere, organization culture (leadership style of boss, relationships among colleagues, and the high workload), students’ personal factors (the degree of students’ maturity, characteristics, and gender), and advisers’ background (religion, personality types, education background, family status, gender and the work position) are the major impact factors of advising student government in the six colleges. 2.The student government are the highest student organization in the college. With the leading position, student representatives are elected to participate in various institution meetings, advocate students’ rights, be the voice of the students, hold student activities and events, and help with the work of institution student affairs to serve all of the students. 3.The practice of problems in student government included: (1) the identity of status; (2) the evaluation of accountability to student government; (3) the ignorant and misunderstanding attitude of institution toward the student government; (4) the poor students’ knowledge and experiences about student government; (5) the conflict between executive division and the student senators; (6) the poor financial situation; (7) the misleading or interfering from the outside school organizations; and (8) the critics on current campus student activities, etc. 4.The three dimensions of the content in advising student government include: (1) advisors’ faith and values toward the student government are the roots of advising. a) believing student-centered:to respect students’ opinions and decisions; to give students opportunities and spaces of learning and developing; to recognize that students need to be advised and guided; to be not emphasize adviser’s authority ; and to love and show empathy with students. b) achieving educational purpose:to affirm the values of extracurricular activities; to help students learn how to make decisions and how to be responsible; to help students do the experiential learning; to help students developing autonomy. c) working with the firm faith:to make themselves have sense of mission and responsibility; to seek for the sense of achievement; to follow the professional principles in student affairs. d) recognizing and respecting student’s autonomy:to recognize that students are independent and should act an important role in institutions. e) showing positive attitudes to meet the challenges from student government:to not be frustrated when deal with the problems; to be active and enthusiastic to advising work. (2) Professional knowledge and practical experiences are the foundation of advising. a) related literatures on student autonomy, educational psychology b) seminar and exchange visiting among different institutions in extra-curriculum area; c) learning from former and experienced colleagues; d) experiential learning from the current practice; e) being familiar with related student rights issues; f) professional knowledge in college student affairs; (3) Professional training is the short cut to do effective advising: a) to be integrated leading and do strategic management; b) to be capable of multiple advising skills; c) to be a consulter; d) to deal with conflicts and solve problems; e) to build good interactions between students and faculties; f) to develop students’ training programs; g) to use guidance strategies; 5. Four metaphors on the roles of advisers are: the guiding lighthouse; a bridge between institution and students; a push hand behind the scene; the students’ partner during the happy and the hard time. Twenty-seven roles are classified, such as the reminder, the guider, the leader, etc. 6. With different role and various background of advisers, four major duties related to administration and twelve duties related to advising are concluded. The results of the research can be valuable references for different types of institution for advising student government. 7.With different institution atmosphere, organizational culture, student characteristics and advisers’ personality, six advising types on student government are classified as following: independent style, leading style, guiding style, consulting style, involving style and laissez faire style. Based on the results and findings of this research, recommendations to the adviser, institution, and student affairs profession are proposed. The suggestions to the further research are also presented.
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學生自治團體, 指導老師, 輔導經驗, 學生事務, student government, advisers, advising experience, student affairs
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