「反政治正確」的「地獄哏」風格言論論述分析──以PTT八卦板為例 A Discourse Analysis on “Hellish Gags” Speech in the Style of “Anti-Political Correctness”: A Case Study of Gossiping Forum in PTT

dc.contributor 王維菁 zh_TW
dc.contributor Wang, Wei-Ching en_US
dc.contributor.author 蔡柏宏 zh_TW
dc.contributor.author Tsai, Bo-Hong en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2020-12-14T07:06:16Z
dc.date.available 2020-02-02
dc.date.available 2020-12-14T07:06:16Z
dc.date.issued 2020
dc.description.abstract   本論文由網路模因(Internet Memes)的觀點出發,觀察臺灣最大的電子布告欄系統(Bulletin Board System, BBS)──批踢踢實業坊(PTT)中,鄉民談及「反政治正確」的「地獄哏」時,如何透過文字上的論述,合理化現實社會中,多半會被視為具道德疑慮,甚至強化針對特定群體之仇恨的言論。   「反政治正確」(Anti-Political Correctness)意指近年國內外社會存在著的一股對於「正確的指稱」,乃至保障社會中相對少數、弱勢群體的「政治正確」感到質疑,甚至反感的氛圍。而「地獄哏」(Hellish Gags)則是網路模因中特殊的一支,常於鄉民發揮創意產製的用戶生成內容(user-generated content, UGC)中,幽默、戲謔地看待他人不幸的經歷,或先天、非自願造成的外在特徵,隱含道德疑慮。不過,卻也時常因文本呈現的手法太過獨特,使閱聽者「忍不住覺得好笑」,游移於「道德」與「不道德」間的模糊地帶。本文發現,「地獄哏」因其敘事手法的「搞笑」與「有趣」而相當吸引人,道德疑慮在此情境下,經常是被「擱置」不談的,著重於「好玩」的一面。但另一方面,「地獄哏」等反政治正確的敘事風格,卻也時常作為鄉民針對過往被視為理所當然、位居「主流」的說法及觀點表達質疑,以及提出獨到見解的途徑。許多時候,字裡行間時常透露鄉民對於「政治正確」的重新解讀,甚至反感。   實際案例上,本文透過論述分析(Discourse Analysis, DA)探究2018年8月至2019年4月之間,八卦板極具爭議的事件──「馮魏石事件」中,鄉民集體起鬨、鬧板,以及大眾媒體之網路綜合報導等因素交互影響的同時,鄉民在貼文、留言裡再現出的性別、社會秩序。研究發現,鄉民對於「道德有瑕疵」,進而在關係中「背叛」既有伴侶的女性,以及與社會多數之既有印象差異過大,卻享有政策優惠的原住民等少數群體相當敵視,展現明顯的網路厭女(online misogyny)氛圍,以及劃分我群、他群的現象中,逐漸累積、激化的敵意。更因參與者眾,使得個別鄉民所感受到的罪惡感因責任分散心理(diffusion of responsibility)等因素而減緩,從而使諸多涉及敵視、仇恨的網路言論更形極端。   除了分析網路語料,本文亦透過半結構式訪談,以PTT站內信功能與線下人際關係的相互介紹等方式,觸及熟悉PTT文化,且對政治不正確,以及「地獄哏」等網路模因、論述上的風格感興趣的受訪者。訪談發現,此類玩笑等敘事手法的社會及文化意義,並不僅止於表面的「恰當」與「不恰當」,還涉及諸多言說者與閱聽者之間,關於「意義產製」及「能否解讀」的關係。對部分受訪者而言,「地獄哏」是極具創意的敘事手法,其中獨特、游移於「道德」與「不道德」間的「技巧」與「哏」,是此類文本在網路社群中吸引關注,甚至受歡迎的重要因素,與歧視、惡意沒有必然關聯。但另一方面,難以接受這般玩笑的受訪者,則將「地獄哏」視為一種以「開玩笑」為名,試圖包裝、淡化隱含在網路模因中的惡意與仇恨的手法,著重於其中的道德疑慮。   整體而言,本文觀察到PTT等網路社群中,存在著針對過往看似合理、理所當然的「政治正確」背後,亦時常使非屬狹義的弱勢,卻同樣「過得不太好」的社會成員(本文稱之為「弱勢的多數」)感到極大的相對剝奪感。諸多看似政治不正確的網路起鬨、集體鬧板等現象,很可能有助「弱勢的多數」抒發現實生活中的憤恨與不舒服,或至少透過這樣的方式,使自身得以「被看見」。但另一方面,亦可能因PTT等線上環境中的匿名、去社會線索等因素,激化更多具道德疑慮,甚至敵視、仇恨特定對象的言論。使得透過網路模因等形式傳遞的玩笑及言論背後,所隱含的政治不正確,乃至反政治正確的議題,值得持續關注。 zh_TW
dc.description.abstract Based on the concept of “Internet Memes,” this study aims to observe the biggest Bulletin Board System (BBS) in Taiwan, PTT, trying to figure out how PTT users (the so-called “Xiang-Min”) rationalize and make some malicious online speech reasonable through their discourse strategies. In the online forum, “Xiang Min” usually describe their malicious speech as “hellish gag,” which is a special form of “joke.” However, these “jokes” sometimes violate the main social value and even foster hatred against certain social groups. This study focuses on two main issues, “anti-political correctness” and “hellish gags.” “Anti-political correctness” means a special social atmosphere in which people suspect “politically correct titles,” or dislike some protecting policies for minorities. “Hellish gag” is a special version of Internet memes. “Xiang-Min” usually make their own “hellish gags” to tease, ridicule, or take others’ misfortune as “jokes.” Sometimes, these “jokes” are malicious. However, because of special ways of storytelling behind these “hellish gags,” these memes usually make readers laugh. This feature shows the special position of “hellish gags,” which lies in the ambiguous position between “morality” and “immorality.” Due to the “interesting” feature, “hellish gags” are very attractive in online forums such as PTT. Although these “jokes” are malicious, “Xiang-Min” sometimes pay more attention to “fun,” instead of potential moral controversies among these memes. On the other hand, “Xiang-Min” sometimes apply “hellish gags” and “anti-political correctness” to doubt those “mainstream” statements, and express their own opinions. Also, these memes show an alternative description of “political correctness” through “Xiang-Min”’s creative expression. In this study, I apply discourse analysis (DA) to figure out social values and ideologies behind some online speech of “Xiang-Min.” Take the most controversial event among 2018 and 2019 in the gossiping forum (one of the main forum in PTT) as an example, “Xiang-Min” usually express their hatred against women with moral defects. Also, if the image of some indigenous people violates the existing ones, but policies still provide some preferential treatment to these minorities, it increases others’ sense of “relative deprivation.” Through online speech of “Xiang-Min,” what they talk about shows the influences based on the atmosphere of online misogyny. At the same time, when people divide “we group” and “the other,” they usually intensify and accumulate their hatred against the “worst” others. What’s more, there are too many “Xiang-Min” involved in these online issues, the sense of guilt will disperse to each “Xiang-Min.” Even if some “jokes” are malicious, people seldom feel their guilt. Therefore, some online speech with hatred seems to be gradually extreme. Besides discourse analysis, I also do several semi-structured interviews to analyze the meanings of these memes for “Xiang-Min.” Through these interviewees, the social and cultural meanings are not merely based on whether these memes are “appropriate” or not. Instead, the process of creation and comprehension maters. For some interviewees, doing “hellish gags” is a very creative way of storytelling, and its moral ambiguity is an important factor to catch readers’ eyes. These “jokes” are not merely based on discrimination and hatred. On the other hand, some interviewees take “hellish gags” as a way to disguise hatred among some Internet memes into “jokes.” Overall, this study shows the controversies behind “political correctness” and “mainstream” statements. That is, some policies seem to help minorities and people in need, but these strategies overlook a lot of people. Although these people are not “absolutely” vulnerable, they still do not live well. (I call these people as “the vulnerable majorities.”) Some preferential policies usually increase a sense of relative deprivation of the “vulnerable majorities.” For these people, some collective actions help them to vent their emotions or even hatred. Also, these “actions” sometimes make these people visible among the Internet era. However, these phenomena usually deteriorate and increase more speech with moral controversies and hatred because of factors such as the anonymity. This phenomenon shows the significance of some “anti-political correctness” issues hidden in online jokes and speech. It is worthy to do further research. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship 大眾傳播研究所 zh_TW
dc.identifier G060688006I
dc.identifier.uri http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22G060688006I%22.&
dc.identifier.uri http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/109846
dc.language 中文
dc.subject 反政治正確 zh_TW
dc.subject 地獄哏 zh_TW
dc.subject 網路模因 zh_TW
dc.subject 論述 zh_TW
dc.subject 虛擬社群 zh_TW
dc.subject 鄉民 zh_TW
dc.subject anti-political correctness en_US
dc.subject hellish gags en_US
dc.subject Internet memes en_US
dc.subject discourse en_US
dc.subject virtual communities en_US
dc.subject Xiang-Min en_US
dc.title 「反政治正確」的「地獄哏」風格言論論述分析──以PTT八卦板為例 zh_TW
dc.title A Discourse Analysis on “Hellish Gags” Speech in the Style of “Anti-Political Correctness”: A Case Study of Gossiping Forum in PTT en_US
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