博物館成人觀眾對話之研究—以國立故宮博物院玉器展為例 An Investigation of the Conversations of Adult Museum Visitors: A Case Study of the Jade Exhibition at the National Palace Museum

Date
2014
Authors
呂憶皖
Lu, Yi-wan
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Abstract
成人觀眾向來是國內外博物館的主力觀眾,而展示是觀眾學習的主要管道,因此檢視博物館現有展示,並提出建議及改善措施,便成為博物館實務工作的重要議題。目前國內外以科學博物館家庭團體對話的研究為主,有關藝術文化類博物館成人觀眾對話缺乏探討,因此有深入研究的價值。 本研究旨在探討成人觀眾參觀故宮玉器展的對話類型及其分布情形,分析對話的內容、功能及特徵,並檢視展示環境脈絡促進對話的成效,據以提出博物館促進成人觀眾對話的策略與建議。本研究以故宮的玉器常設展為場域,採用立意取樣,以經常參觀藝術文化類博物館的成人觀眾為對象,共計20名,2人為一組,形成10組成人觀眾團體參與本研究。本研究以非參與觀察法、訪談法收集質性資料,並運用內容分析法之量化分析,以期能深入解析成人觀眾的對話。 研究結果發現,成人觀眾的對話以知覺對話最多,具備藝術文化背景與否,對於受訪者在引述、複雜概念、知識連結的表現有顯著影響。再者,綜合各組參觀過程中的對話資料,發現對話內容可歸納為「知識取向」、「審美取向」、「個人連結取向」三種取向。對話所扮演的功能包括「引導並形成雙方共同注意的焦點」、「交流彼此的想法及感受」、「互相提供學習的鷹架」。各對話類型則具有以下特徵:知覺對話是對話的起始點;概念對話的深度取決於觀眾的知識背景;連結對話呈現個人特有的記憶及經驗;策略對話取決於個人的博物館素養;情意對話是針對文物視覺特質的直覺反應。最後,從玉器展的展示空間、展示媒體及文物詮釋,檢視展示環境脈絡對於促進對話的成效,提出博物館成人觀眾對話的模式,並針對博物館參觀環境與展示空間、展示設計、文物詮釋、教育推廣等實務面,分別提出四項促進成人觀眾對話的策略,以及後續研究方向的建議。
Adults constitute the majority of museum visitors both locally and abroad and exhibitions are visitors' main conduit for learning. This makes the evaluation of exhibitions and provision of recommendations and improvement measures a vitally important subject for museum staff. Presently, the focus of domestic and international research is on the conversations of family groups in science museums. However, in-depth study of adult visitor conversations for arts and cultural museums also comprises significant research value. This study is designed to explore conversation categories and their distribution for adult visitors at the Jade Exhibition in the National Palace Museum. Analysis of the conversation content, functions, and distinguishing features is conducted along with an evaluation of the effectiveness of the physical context of the exhibition to enhance adult visitor conversations. The results of this assessment are used to provide recommendations and strategies for improving adult visitor conversations. The permanent Jade Exhibition at the National Palace Museum is the site for this study. A purposive sampling method is used with adult visitors whom frequently visit art and cultural museums being the object of study. A total of 20 adult visitors, divided into 10 teams with 2 visitors in each group, participated in this study. This investigation uses a non-participant observation survey and interviews to collect qualitative data and applies quantitative content analysis to thoroughly analyze conversations of visitors. Results of this study presented that perceptual talk is the type of learning conversation adult visitors engage in the most with responses on quotation, complex concept, and knowledge-connection clearly influenced by the interviewee's personal background in the arts and cultural studies. Furthermore, a synthesis of conversation data from each group reveals three discernible approaches: "knowledge approach," "aesthetic approach," and "personal connection approach." The function of conversations include "the facilitation and formation of a mutually reciprocal focus of attention," "a platform for the mutual exchange of thoughts and feelings," and "the mutual provision of scaffolding for learning." Each category of conversation contains its own distinctive characteristics as follows: perceptual talk is the starting point of conversations, the depth of conceptual talk is determined by the visitor's knowledge background, connecting talk presents an individual's unique memories and experiences, strategic talk is determined by an individual's museum literacy, and affective talk is an intuitive response to the visual attributes of the objects. Lastly, the physical context of the exhibition is evaluated in terms of the Jade Exhibition floor space, exhibition media, and interpretation of the objects to enhance adult visitor conversations, and a model of adult visitor converations is proposed. Strategies for improving adult visitor conversations involve the four aspects of museum environment and exhibition space, exhibition design, interpretation of the objects, and educational initiatives. Suggestions on directions for continued research are also presented.
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Keywords
博物館學習, 博物館展示, 成人觀眾, 對話, museum learning, museum exhibition, adult visitor, conversations
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