19-20世紀碑帖收藏文化之研究—以三井高堅「聽冰閣」舊藏為例 A Study of Chinese Rubbing Collection Culture During the 19th and 20th Centuries, Drawing on Examples from Mitsui Takakata’s “Chohyokaku” Collection

Date
2017
Authors
蔡耀慶
Tsai, Yao-Ching
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Abstract
拓本的產生到收藏,從作為學習對象到成為一種文化知識符號,從商品到文物等等是許多涵義交織的結果。本研究有兩大議題,其一是以碑帖拓本為主體的討論,以東亞圖書館所藏「聽冰閣」舊藏碑碣拓本為主,研究版本早晚、拓本內容真偽,以及作品印記所代表的意義與碑帖在書法史上的意義。另一議題則探索收藏拓本的緣由,關注拓本收藏文化的拓本流傳的相關問題,碑帖拓本被收藏的歷史脈絡。 研究進行分為三個階段,首先針對美國加州大學柏克萊分校的東亞圖書館收藏碑帖進行細節檢視,關注所藏碑帖的實際狀況,進行版本、優劣的判讀,重視拓本本身的價值。其次從碑帖拓本上可見的印記、題記等資料進行查索,考察拓本的傳遞過程。最後將前述兩段資料進行審視,後續思考這批數量龐大,品類眾多的碑帖,為何會聚集於一人?他們之間有哪些相互關係?碑帖拓本從學習書法的範本角色,逐漸轉為收藏的對象,收藏者是基於何種心態進行收藏,它背後是否還有其他意義?本研究聚焦於三井高堅的「聽冰閣」舊藏拓本,探究碑帖出現的社會因素,以及將碑帖拓本收藏的意義。 對於碑帖拓本的本體研究,是以傳統鑑別碑帖拓本的比對方式進行,將現有的鑑定資料做為檢視的參照點,細查東亞圖書館中的拓片,考訂拓本早晚版本,推測拓本完成的可能年代。藉由淸人對於碑帖的著錄資料,以及拓本上的相關註記、原石所在地,檢視拓本上所出現的印記,針對印記進行比對與查索,掌握該拓本原為何人所有等基礎研究工作。後續收集與拓本相關的文獻進行閱讀,除了查看與拓本有直接相關的專書,作為對拓本必須通過的查驗資料外,對於拓本出現的印記加以追蹤,追索原有者的身分,將文獻閱讀擴大到與印記所有人相關的研究文本,討論這些所有人對於碑帖的認識,進而檢視清代盛行的金石學的影響狀況。 經由整理與歸納拓本的年代、印記及附屬資料,確認「聽冰閣」收藏拓本是條理分明的收藏概念下成形。這與19、20世紀的金石學有所關連,即是書法學習、重碑之風對收藏碑帖拓本都有所影響。藉著碑帖拓本的印記與題記,發現碑帖拓本聯繫著碑帖愛好者與研究者,不僅是建立了彼此的關係脈絡,也開展碑帖的文化意義。
What inscription rubbings yield as far as collecting is concerned is results with many interconnected meanings, from serving as study objects to becoming types of symbols of cultural knowledge, from merchandise to artifact, etc. This research concerns two main issues. The first is primarily a discussion about rubbings from stone inscriptions, focusing on the old collection of Chohyokaku stone tablet rubbings in the collection of the C. V. Starr East Asian Library at the University of California, Berkeley, in the United States, researching the chronology of the versions and whether the content is true or false, as well as the significance of the imprints on the works and the significance of rubbings from stone inscriptions in the history of calligraphy. The second issue is an exploration of the reasons for collecting inscription rubbings, focusing on questions of rubbing collection culture to do with the circulation of inscription rubbings and the historical context in which stone inscription rubbings have been collected. The research was carried out in three stages. First a detailed examination was made of the collection of the library’s rubbings from stone inscriptions, focusing on the actual condition of the rubbings, conducting an evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the versions, and attaching importance to the value of the inscriptions themselves. Next, from the imprints and epigraphs on the rubbings, etc., an investigation was undertaken of the process by which they had circulated. Finally, the data from these two stages were closely examined for the purpose of follow-up deliberation as to why this huge quantity of highly varied rubbings from stone inscriptions had been assembled by one person. What connections were there between them? In line with the ideals of the study of calligraphy, rubbings from stone inscriptions gradually become objects for collection. What is the mentality with which the collector collects? Is there some “other” meaning behind his decision to do so? This study focuses on Mitsui Takakata’s old collection of rubbings to explore the social elements that appear on rubbings from stone inscriptions and the significance of collections of such rubbings. As far as the substantive research of rubbings from stone inscriptions is concerned, this was undertaken by means of the traditional differentiation of such rubbings, using pre-evaluated data as the points of reference for examination, meticulously examining the library’s tablet rubbings, checking and correcting the chronology of the versions, and speculating on their possible period of completion. By means of data on rubbings from stone inscriptions recorded during the Qing dynasty, as well as related annotations on the rubbings themselves and the original locations of the stones, basic research work was performed to inspect the imprints that appear on them and compare such imprints in order to ascertain who originally owned each rubbing, etc. In the follow-up data collection and review of rubbings-related literature, apart from the checking of specialist books directly related to rubbings and performance of the necessary inspections of data concerning rubbings, imprints appearing on the rubbings were tracked, the identities of the original owners pursued, and the literature review expanded to research texts concerning imprint owners in order to discuss these owners’ understanding of stone rubbing inscriptions and go on to examine the influence of the epigraphy that prevailed during the Qing dynasty. By sorting out and summarizing the rubbing period, imprints and related data, it was confirmed that the Chohyokaku rubbings collection took shape in accordance with the concept of collecting for the purpose of arranging and distinguishing. This has something of a relationship with nineteenth and twentieth century epigraphy, namely that the study of calligraphy and the fashion for enjoying stelae have all had their influence upon the collection of rubbings from stone inscriptions. By means of the imprints and epigraphs on rubbings from stone inscriptions, we discover that such rubbings are connected to those who love them and those who research them, having not just established a network of mutual connections but also expanded the significance of the culture surrounding them.
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碑帖拓本, 收藏, 書法, 印記, 三井高堅, inscription rubbing, collection, calligraphy, imprint, Mitsui Takakata
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