高年級全盲兒童初次透過圖像化教學學習繪畫表現之個案研究 To Draw for the First Time: A Case Study of Congenitally Blind Higher-grade Students’ Experiences of Learning Through Graphics-based Teaching

Date
2017
Authors
陳亭伃
Chen, Ting-Yu
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Abstract
本研究欲探討對於視障藝術教育領域中,圖像化教學可能性。教學之內容主要為兩大區塊,分別為:「基本幾何圖形、圖形組合、圖像符號」與「明眼人空間概念」,使全盲兒童能理解其原理並建立相關概念,並藉由繪畫活動更加貼近並回歸主流社會。研究對象為兩位先天性全盲女童,分別就讀五、六高年級。透過教學與修正,研究最終得以提出一有效圖像化教學之教案設計,將實驗性教學轉換至實際能應用之教案。教案設計分為四大階段、16堂45分鐘課程,首先教學基本幾何圖形後,加以組成合成符號,以此為基礎帶入空間關係,最後綜合複習與創作。而教學流程粗略能區分為數個步驟:一為觸摸立體物件、平面教具。二則以幾何圖形磁鐵板排列出立體物件,此過程強調簡化、平面化、符號化。三、順利排列完成後,嘗試進行繪畫。研究者視情形從旁協助,進行教學。最後第四階段得以綜合當次課程所學,創作作品。本研究結果發現:(1) 圖像符號教學有助於無視覺經驗者學習繪畫,認知與繪畫發展皆有所進步;(2) 受到不同階段課程影響,參與者也明顯表現出不同創作;(3) 全盲者得以藉由圖像化教學理解明眼人之部分空間表現法則;(4) 刺激物對於全盲參與者繪畫之影響相當明顯,其提供之資訊與細節皆會造成不同繪畫表現;(5) 適性教學十分重要,研究者須隨時判斷狀況並調整課程內容,同時採取正面鼓勵的態度;(6) 持續練習與複習能有效幫助參與者穩固學習經驗與概念,並使進步更加顯著。
To Draw for the First Time: A Case Study of Congenitally Blind Higher-grade Students’ Experiences of Learning Through Graphics-based Teaching The present study explored the feasibility of applying graphics-based teaching in the field of art education for the visually impaired. The curriculum was composed of two parts: “basic geometric forms, combinations of geometric forms, and graphic symbols” and “spatial concepts of the sighted.” The curriculum enabled children with blindness to understand the principles of drawing and build on related concepts through participating in related activities, thus further adapting them to mainstream society. Two young girls with congenital blindness were recruited for the study, one in the fifth grade and the other in the sixth grade. Applying the teaching experiences and revising the teaching plan, a final plan involving graphic-based teaching was eventually proposed that involved the practical application of the experimental teaching methods. The teaching plan consisted of 4 phases, totaling 16 sessions of 45 minutes each. The plan began with familiarization with basic geometric forms, followed by the combination of these forms into symbols, then the introduction of the concept of spatial dimensions, and concluded with comprehensive reviews and art creation. The teaching process could be roughly divided into the following steps: (1) touching and feeling three-dimensional objects and two-dimensional teaching aids; (2) forming objects using magnetic tiles, with a strong emphasis on simplification, the flattening of three-dimensional objects, and symbolization; (3) attempting to draw after successful completion of the previous step, with the researchers providing assistance and instructions as needed; and (4) starting to create artworks after reviewing what had been learned. The study discovered that: (1) graphic-based teaching was productive in training students who had no previous experience of sight to draw, because it markedly improved their recognition of the environment and their drawing abilities; (2) the participants’ creations exhibited distinct styles under the influence of the different phases of the study; (3) graphic-based teaching could enable the congenitally blind to learn some of the rules that sighted people use in spatial representations; (4) stimulation had a noticeable influence on art education among the congenitally blind, and the information and details of the stimulation led to different means of expression in their drawings; (5) adaptive teaching was crucial, and researchers should remain constantly alert, make necessary adjustments, and maintain a positive and encouraging attitude; (6) continuous practice and review could effectively help participants internalize the experiences and concepts gained through learning, thereby furthering their progress.
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Keywords
視覺障礙, 圖像符號, 空間概念, 先天性全盲兒童, 繪畫發展, visually impaired, graphic symbol, spatial concept, congenitally blind children, drawing development
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