理查 ‧ 史特勞斯樂團歌曲研究 The Orchestral Lieder by Richard Strauss

Date
2013
Authors
蔡永凱
Yung-Kai Tsai
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Abstract
理查•史特勞斯的樂團歌曲,即為獨唱人聲與管絃樂團所譜寫的藝術歌曲,雖然常被演出,在學界卻仍然缺乏系統性的研究。長久以來,這些作品常常被簡化為是鋼琴藝術歌曲所改編為的樂團版本,但是,按照作品的創作過程,這些歌曲卻可分成兩種:一種是「鋼琴歌曲樂團化」,即由鋼琴版本樂團化而來;另一種則是「原創樂團歌曲」,即一開始即為管絃樂團構思,不存在鋼琴版本。 當代樂評將使用「管絃樂團」的「藝術歌曲」,視為對藝術歌曲美學裡「親密性」的傷害。為了解決這個爭議,學界提出了一個名為「樂團歌曲」的新樂類概念。它提出樂團歌曲與鋼琴藝術歌曲的差異,在於所使用的詩文類型與風格。另外,它也強調「樂團」的因素才是這類作品的關鍵。它的影響,並不只在於演奏樂器的差別,也牽涉到當代不同樂類概念的相互影響。除了在作曲手法上,也在樂團語法上。 本論文發現,「鋼琴歌曲樂團化」的歌曲形式較為傳統。在配器上,受到歌劇的影響,常使用「選擇性編制」的樂團。透過「音響色澤畫面」的概念亦可見到,史特勞斯在將鋼琴藝術歌曲樂團化時,常傾向讓樂曲的第一個「音響色澤畫面」再現;即使整個畫面不再現,也常見有一個貫穿的音響層,形成作品的一致性。在許多作品裡,「樂團化」也可以被視為再次創作的過程,為作品添加新的意義。 「原創樂團歌曲」的歌曲形式,則受到交響詩的影響,大量使用動機發展手法,有如當代管絃樂作品一般,脫離十九世紀藝術歌曲以文字詩節為主的形式。在配器上,史特勞斯常在原創樂團歌曲裡嘗試使用以前未使用過的樂器,並將成果延續到後續的歌劇創作中,猶如歌劇寫作的試驗場。 對兩類作品的分析顯示,「鋼琴歌曲樂團化」與「原創樂團歌曲」並不能被視為是同一個樂類:前者為鋼琴藝術歌曲的延伸;後者則為一介於藝術歌曲、交響詩與歌劇間的混合樂種。同時,本論文也指出,對於這些作品的美學評斷,應由作品內部的作曲技法出發。
Richard Strauss's orchestral Lieder, works composed for solo voice and orchestra, are consistently seen on the concert repertoire, yet they receive limited critical attention from the musicological studies. These works are often seen as the orchestral version arranged from a Klavierlied. However, according to their compositional procedure, they should be classified into two sub categories: the Klavierliedorchestrierung, the orchestrated Klavierlied, and the original Orchestergesang, a vocal piece originally conceived for the orchestra without a pre-existing piano version. Most contemporary critics consider the use of orchestra in a Lied detrimental to the intimacy, which is essential to the aesthetics of Lied. A new musical genre named Orchetergesang is proposed to solve this dispute. The genre and style of the poetic texts are taken as the main factor to distinguish the Orchestergesang and the Klavierlied. The new music genre also highlights the significance of "orchestra." Its impact is not limited to the creation of new orchestral vocabularies, but it stimulates interactions between different music genres, especially on compositional technique and formal structure, among Strauss’s contemporaries. The music forms in the Klaiverliedorchestrierung are more conventional. Influenced by the operatic tradition, many of them use an orchestra with Auswahlbeseztung. It is also clear that Strauss tends to either recapitulate the first Klangfarbenbild within a piece or retain a certain sonic layer to render consistency for the work. The phase of "orchestration" can also be seen as a re-creational stage, which adds new meanings upon the original piano version. On the other hand, the music structure of the original Orchestergesang is influenced by the tone poems. Departing from the traditional schemes of Lied, which follows a stanzaic structure of the lyrics, Strauss adopts a motivic-development structure often used in the contemporary orchestral works. Strauss also experiments with instruments he never uses in the original Orchestergesang and later applies them to the operatic composition. This study on Klavierliedorchestrierung and the original Orchestergesang shows that these works should not be treated as the same music genre. The former is more of an extension of the Klavierlied, while the latter is a synthesis of Lied, tone poems and operas. The author suggests that a proper aesthetic evaluation of these works can be achieved only through an integral analysis on compositional techniques.
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理查‧史特勞斯, 樂團歌曲, 藝術歌曲, 管絃樂法, 配器法, 音響色澤, Richard Strauss, Orchestergesang, Lied, Orchestration, Instrumentation, Klangfarbe
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