國中好小子同儕文化研究:Paul Willis「文化創生」理論之應用與評析 The Study on the Peer Culture of Junior High School Students:The Application, Analysis and Criticize of the “Culture Production” Theory Proposed by Paul Willis

Date
2009
Authors
鍾明倫
Ming-Lun Chung
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Abstract
研究者嘗試從階級在空間的文化鬥爭,以及工人階級文化歷史的特殊性,分析工人階級學生校園抗拒文化之文化政治意義,進一步論證Willis所提之文化創生(culture production)理論主張之合理性與正當性。本研究主要的關懷為,工人階級學生如何挪用原生階級所累積的文化符碼與工人文化慣習,動態地與教育中的政治機會結構相互動,而展現出詮釋權爭奪之文化政治的運動特質。 根據上述之研究動機,本研究之研究目的有三:(一)瞭解工人階級形成的歷史因素、文化特徵及其相關的教育理論與學說;(二)探究與評析Paul Willis工人階級國中學生校園抗拒文化理論與方法論;(三)以Paul Willis文化創生論證工人階級國中學生校園抗拒文化之脈絡性;(四)分析工人階級國中學生校園抗拒文化對我國學校制度與課程設計之蘊義。在研究方法上,為理解工人階級校園的抗拒文化,因此研究者採用教育俗民誌的研究取向,以參與觀察、訪談,以及文件分析等方法進行,將自己置身於學生生活的脈絡之中,以瞭解學生校園抗拒文化的動機、型態、意義、目的及影響。 本研究經過文獻探討,以及對研究參與者進行觀察、深入訪談以及文件分析後,本研究之結論如下: (一) 好小子校園抗拒文化、家庭文化、街頭文化與工廠文化符應工人階級的性格。 (二) 好小子抗拒行為源於資本主義、管理主義與升學主義意識型態的洞察。 (三) 工人階級道德意識、勞動觀與父權結構對於抗拒文化之生成的限制 (四) 好小子校園願意承擔抗拒行為所需付出之代價,而不願意被霸權結構收編與宰制。 (五) 好小子校園抗拒文化之形構對於其工人階級職業之選擇具有深刻之影響性。
The researcher tried to analyze the cultural and political meaning of working class students’ resistance culture from the cultural struggle between classes within the space and the specialty of working class historical development, and we testified to the reason and legitimacy of the theory of culture production proposed by Paul Willis in the advanced stage. The main concern on this study is about how the working class students took advantage on working class cultural code and habitus accumulated by the primitive class to interact with the political chances dynamically, and how they could show the peculiarity of the politics of culture movement on the argument of interpretation. The purposes, according to the front concern, of this study are as followed: 1. To understand the historical factors, cultural peculiarity and pedagogical theorem or ism of the formative process of working class. 2. To probe into the theorem and methods of the resistance culture, proposed by Paul Willis, happened within the working class junior high school students. 3. To examine the reason of the culture resistance of working class junior high school students by means of theory of culture production. 4. To analyze how the meanings, provided from the cultural-resistance of working class junior high school students, contributed to the educational policy and system. The results of the study showed that: 1. The lads’ resistance culture, family, street and factory match the characteristic of working class. 2. The lads’ insight toward the campus life includes capitalism, meritocracy, and managerialism. 3. Capitalism also restricts the working class students in the aspects of moral concepts, viewpoints of labor, and construct of patriarchy society. 4. The lads preferred to bear the burden caused from the resistance to value of campus custom instead of being predominated or surrendered. 5. The lads’ construction under the culture of resistance deeply affects the option of working class toward the occupations.
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Keywords
P. Willis, 工人階級, 抗拒文化, 文化創生, 同儕文化, P. Willis, working class, resistance culture, culture production, peer culture
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