台北縣樹林市高齡者社會支持與生活適應之研究 The Study of Social Support and Life Adjustment for the Elderly in Su-Lin City, Taipei County

Date
2009
Authors
劉淑惠
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摘 要 本研究主要的目的在瞭解高齡者的社會支持與生活適應之關係,採調查研究法,選取台北縣樹林市200位65歲以上高齡者為研究對象,研究工具以「高齡者社會支持與生活適應之調查問卷」為主。問卷內容包括個人基本資料、社會支持量表及生活適應量表等三部份。採SPSS統計軟體,以平均數、標準差、T考驗、ANOVA、相關及迴歸等統計方法加以印證分析,根據主要研究發現,茲將研究結論歸納如下: 一、 高齡者在社會支持量表及生活適應量表的表現整體而言偏向高分,分別在「訊息性支持」及「家庭適應」得分較高。 二、 高齡者的整體社會支持在年齡、自覺健康狀況、自覺經濟狀況等變項達顯著相關。 三、 高齡者的生活適應在年齡、教育程度、經濟來源、自覺健康狀況、自覺經濟狀況、與家人相聚時數、與朋友相聚時數等變項達顯著差異或相關,在性別、婚姻狀況、居住狀況、宗教信仰等變項則無顯著差異或相關。 四、 社會支持各層面「訊息性支持」、「社會整合」、「情感性支持」與生活適應的「家庭適應」、「社會適應」、「心理適應」及「生理適應」皆存在顯著正相關。 五、 不同背景變項與社會支持對「生活適應」層面之多元逐步迴歸分析結果顯示,以「自覺健康狀況」預測力最佳,其餘依次為「社會整合」、「教育程度」、「和家人相聚時數」、「年齡」。 本文最後則根據文獻及研究結果,對高齡者提出的建議為應自省年老所帶來的身心調適,積極面對老年生活,讓生活適應更佳,在政府部分,應加強老人福利措施。 關鍵詞:高齡者、社會支持、生活適應
The Study of Social Support and Life Adjustment for the Elderly in Su-Lin City, Taipei County Abstract The purpose of this study is to understand the relation between social support and life adjustment for the elderly in Su Lin City, Taipei County. This research takes the method of survey study. 200 of senior adults, aged above 65 years old, were selected as the sample of this survey. A questionnaire “The Survey of social support and life adjustment of senior adults” was designed as the research tool. This questionnaire includes three parts: the interviewees’ personal information, social support scale, and life adjustment scale. The collected data was analyzed with SPSS statistic software; means, standard deviation, T-Test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation and multiple stepwise regressions were also applied in the research. The main findings are as below: 1. The elderly scored high in social support scale and life adjustment scale; higher scores appear respectively on “informational support” and “family adjustment.” 2. On the elderly social support, the variants “age,” “self-aware health condition,” and “self-aware economical condition reached a significant relevance. 3. There is significant difference and relevance on “age,” “educational background,” “economical resources,” “self-aware economical condition,” “the hours spent with family members,” and “the hours spent with friends”. However, it makes no significant difference on “gender,” “marital status,” “living condition” and “religion and belief”. 4. There exists a positive relation among all the aspects of social support, such as “informational support,” “social integration,” “emotional support,” and the four variants of life adjustment—“family adjustment,” “social adjustment,” “psychological adjustment,” and “physical adjustment.” 5. There is a best predictability on “self-aware health condition” in the analysis of multiple stepwise regressions, which is made with the different background variants and the social support towards “life adjustment;” seconded in order by “Social integration” “educational background” “hours spent with family members” and “age”. According to the literatural review and the result of this study, the researcher suggested that the elderly should self-retrospect the physical and psychological adjustment of aging, positively embrace the elderly life to improve the life adjustment. The government should enhance the welfare for the elderly. Key words: elderly, social support, life adjustment
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高齡者, 社會支持, 生活適應, elderly, social support, life adjustment
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