我國學校體育行政組織效能之研究—以大專校院為例

Abstract

摘 要 本研究藉由理論探討與實證研究,解析大專校院體育行政組織效能內涵與現況、比較大專校院體育行政組織成員對組織效能之認知差異與瞭解組織效能變項之關係,同時驗證大專校院體育行政組織效能模式。在理論方面,採用組織效能評量之整合模式,以開放系統觀點,透過德懷術探究學校體育行政組織效能內涵,並歸納研究之假設模式;在實證方面,透過問卷調查針對全國160所大專校院體育行政組織成員進行全面調查。經郵寄1402份調查問卷,得有效問卷820份。根據所得資料,經描述統計、單因子多變項變異數分析、單因子變異數分析、典型相關、徑路分析及結構方程模式等統計方法處理,獲致如下結論與建議: 一、運動場館設施與環境、體育人力、體育經費、組織結構、行政領導、組織文化、組織承諾、組織衝突管理、教學效能、工作滿足、工作績效與服務品質為學校體育組織效能之重要特徵與內涵;大專校院體育行政組織效能及各層面效能屬中等至中上程度,有待提升,俾使組織效能最佳化與最大化。 二、不同背景變項大專校院體育行政組織成員對組織效能認知均達顯著差異。其中約聘人員、高中學歷者對組織效能認知普遍低於行政主管、教師;女性對行政領導與工作滿足顯著低於男性;而公立、學院、專科、二級單位及無設立體育運動科系對組織效能認知顯著低於一級單位、有設置相關科系。整體而言,必須正視與轉化低學歷、低職等成員個人需求與目標,並對女性權利議題關注;而公立、學院與專科、處於二級單位及無設立體育運動科系學校應強化審視資源條件、人力與行政業務契合度,藉以獲取資源、順暢組織運作,俾擴大產出彰顯組織效能。 三、資源投入變項、運作過程變項與產出變項間均具典型相關,解釋總變異量為42.76%、46.45%、47.84%;影響大專體育行政組織效能主要徑路為運動場館設施與環境、體育人力、體育經費投入,透過行政領導對組織效能之影響最大。因此,應強化變項影響與聯結、循徑路方向研擬具體策略,增益組織產能與綜效。 四、大專校院體育行政組織效能初建假設模式經理論剪裁與模式修定,除絕對適配度指數RMR值,餘指標均達適配的標準或臨界值,顯示徑路圖與實際觀察資料適配度良好,修定模式獲得統計驗證支持。
Abstract The purposes of this study were to analyze the connotation and state of the efficiency of physical education administrative organization in universities and colleges, also, to compare the cognitive difference about organizational efficiency of members and to understand the correlation between variables; meanwhile, to test and verify the efficiency model of the physical administration in universities and colleges. Theoretically, by the viewpoint of open system, the researcher used the integration model of organizational efficiency evaluation and Delphi’s method to explore the connotation of the efficiency of school physical education administrative organization, and concluded the hypothesis model of the study. Practically, the researcher investigated members of all the one hundred and sixty universities and colleges in Taiwan through questionnaire. And the number of effective questionnaire was eight hundred and twenty. Descriptive Statistic, one-way ANOVA, MANOVA, canonical correlation, path diagram and Structural Equation Model (SEM) were used to compute data. And the results showed: 1. Sport facilities and environment, human resource, physical education founds, organizational structure, administrative leadership, organizational culture, organizational commitment, management of organizational conflict, teaching efficiency, working satisfaction, working efficiency and service quality were all important specificities and connotations of the efficiency of school physical education administrative organization. The efficiency of all dimensions was only at the middle and upper level; therefore, the administrators should try to improve this situation so that to enhance the efficiency of all. 2. There were differences among organization members. The organizational efficiency cognition of who were not formally employed or high school educational background was lower than that of administrators and teachers. The satisfaction with administrative leadership and working of female was lower than that of male. The cognition of members belonged to public schools, colleges, second-class organization or schools without departments in relation to physical education/ sports were less then those who belonged to first-class organization or schools with departments in relation to physical education/ sports. Generally speaking, the administrators must square up to the personal needs and goals of members with lower educational background or position and pay attention to the issues about female rights, so as to get more resources and smooth the organizational operation. 3. There were canonical correlation among input, process and output of the efficiency of school physical education administrative organization. Main factors that influenced the organizational efficiency in universities and colleges were sport facilities and environment, human resource, physical education founds, and administrative leadership was the intermediate factor of it. For that reason, the administrators should reinforce the connection of variables and draft specific plans according to the results of path diagram that they could raise the efficiency and synergy of the organization. 4. After modifying, all the fit indexes of the hypothesis model were good except the RMR (root mean square residual). This result revealed that the fit degree between path diagram and collected data was perfect and the efficiency model of the physical education administration in universities and colleges was supported by statistics.

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Keywords

學校體育行政組織, 組織效能, 結構方程模式, school physical education administrative organization, organizational efficiency, Structural Equation Model (SEM)

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