從Bateson遊戲理論觀點探討不同族裔組合之幼兒於假裝遊戲之信號及後設溝通內涵 The Various Ethnic Compositions of Preschool Children’s Signals and Metacommunication in Pretend Play: From the Perspective of Bateson’s Play Theory

Date
2019
Authors
陳必卿
Chen, Bi-Ching
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Abstract
本研究目的運用Bateson遊戲理論的觀點探討幼兒於假裝遊戲之信號及後設溝通內涵,並進一步分析不同族裔組合之幼兒於假裝遊戲的信號及後設溝通之內涵。研究方法採取質性取向,場域以立意取樣於花蓮縣境內阿汪附幼(化名),該附幼共有三個班級,皆採混齡主題教學,而本研究參與者為小花班(化名)的28名幼兒,且幼兒族裔的分布相當平均。此外,研究者角色為觀察參與者,以不干涉幼兒的遊戲活動為主,而資料蒐集方式主要是以系統化的觀察,輔以研究參與者的訪談、幼兒作品的蒐集,以及教師資料的提供,最後分析的架構為重複閱讀Bateson遊戲理論的觀點(遊戲框架、信號及後設溝通之概念),還有觀察研究的札記找尋重點與教師及幼兒的訪談內容,並透過開放式編碼進行分類與歸納,秉持這些嚴謹步驟,將原始資料經由有系統的模式逐步抽絲剝繭,期以呈現不同族裔組合(例如:原漢新、漢新、原漢及原新)之幼兒於假裝遊戲之信號及後設溝通內涵。本研究結果顯示:(1)在開啟假裝遊戲之信號及後設溝通出現族裔組合、個別族裔和表述形式的不同,但後設溝通都以相同澄清和解釋的策略來了解出現在想像情境裡有關真實環境的符號,以及玩物所指涉的行為,最後要在商店與餐廳知識及經驗的意義達共識才能有效啟動想像情境;(2)在維持假裝遊戲之信號及後設溝通沒有族裔組合與表述形式的不同,但他們都為延續想像情境,會用釐清、建議和協商的策略來了解出現在想像情境裡與真實世界行為不合邏輯的經驗或狀態,最後要在既合乎現實餐廳的脈絡,又不破壞目前情節的意義達共識才能有效延續想像情境;(3)在終止假裝遊戲之信號及後設溝通也沒有族裔組合與表述形式的不同,不過為了要結束想像情境,會用討論和修補的策略來了解出現在想像情境裡遊戲角色與用餐經驗有衝突的事件、立場和行動,最後要在符合餐廳經營條件的意義達共識才有能有效結束想像情境;(4)不分族裔組合之幼兒在開啟、維持與終止假裝遊戲的想像情境時,他們的後設溝通都會出現暫停遊戲角色和活動以真實身份來討論和說明行為舉止的意義。
The objectives of the research were to investigate preschool children’s signals and metacommunication in pretend play from Bateson’s play theory. Further analyses were based on those of various ethnic compositions. The qualitative approach was used here. A-Wang preschool (an alias) had three class – mixed-aged teaching, and one of the Xiao-Hua class (an alias) 28 preschools children were selected by purposive sampling in Hualien Country. Besides, children’s activities would not be interfered by researchers. Research data were collected by systematic observation, interviews of participants, children’s work collections, and background information of teachers and children. The Bateson’s play theory and concepts of play signals and metacommunication were applied when reading the research records repeatedly and seeing the key points. Categorization in the final stage was based on the open-coding from the various ethnic compositions as “aboriginal, Han Chinese, and new immigrant”, “Han Chinese, and new immigrant”, “aboriginal, Han Chinese” and “aboriginal and new immigrant”. Results showed the followings: (i) the signals and metacommunication for opening pretend play not only had a difference in the various ethnic compositions but also showed some unlikeness on their expressions. These expressions had the same function to start up the imaginary context effectively, such as clarified and explained for the semiotic system of real environment and the referential behavior of plaything. Finally, the effectively reached consensus for opening imaginary context of pretend play had to understand the meaning of the knowledge and experience for the store and restaurants; (ii) the signals and metacommunication for maintain pretend play had no difference in the various ethnic compositions and expressions. In addition, they let imaginary context be continued effectively by the strategies of clarified, suggested and negotiated. In order to understand the behavior between the imagined context and the real world appeared the illogical experience or status. Finally, the effectively reached consensus for maintain imaginary context of pretend play had to balance in the meaning for the contexts of the realistic restaurant and current the play plot; (iii) the signals and metacommunication for stopping pretend play also had no difference in the various ethnic compositions and expressions. They wanted to keep imaginary context effectively, so they used the strategies of discussion and repair to coordinate the conflicting, events, positions or actions between play roles and the dining experience. Finally, the effectively reached consensus for stopping imaginary context of pretend play had to conform with the meaning of restaurant managed conditions; (iv) the signals and metacommunication for imaginary contexts of opening, maintain and stopping pretend play had no difference in the various ethnic compositions, because they all appeared pause the play role and activities using the true identity to discussing and interpreting the meaning of the behavior.
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Bateson遊戲理論, 不同族裔組合之幼兒, 信號及後設溝通, 假裝遊戲, 遊戲框架, Bateson’s play theory, various ethnic compositions of preschool children, signals and metacommunication, pretend play, play frame
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