童軍運動領導經驗對職場領導力影響之研究 The Study of the Influence of Scout Movement Leadership Experience on Workplace Leadership

Date
2021
Authors
李騰峰
Li, Teng-Feng
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Abstract
本研究旨在探討童軍運動領導經驗,對個人展現職場領導力的影響。領導力是持續學習與進化的能力,童軍團的運作是有利於持續學習與個人發展的方式,這個展現在身教與沈浸於境教的過程,說明領導力是可以被教導的,領導經驗則透過各種歷練不斷累積。本研究依循權變理論中的「路徑目標理論」進行研究與探討。採質性研究方法,研究參與者則以立意取樣方式,找到四位職場中、高階主管,曾在求學時期參與童軍運動,且現正擔任童軍團長或義務服務員者,進行半結構式面對面個別深度訪談。求學時期參加童軍運動,成為學長姐、擔任大型活動總籌、團幹部,所累積的領導經驗,與成為童軍義務服務員參與童軍運動,從新進服務員到團長,成為資深服務員、接任團領導幹部所累積的領導經驗,對職場領導力皆有正向影響,且與路徑目標理論相符。童軍運動中因不同環境,建構不同團隊成員組合,其中擔任領導角色者,運用支持型、參與型、指導型、成就導向型,或者綜合運用各種不同領導型態,以發揮領導效能,達到共同目標。工作職場上展現領導力的成果,是團隊在具有動機、被引發熱情的情境下達成工作績效;雖因不同產業其傳統不同,新創公司與成熟公司文化也不同,但人性是相同的。當資深者同理資淺者的擔心、當團隊目標跨出團隊成員舒適圈範圍,支持型、參與型、指導型、成就導向型等領導型態同樣會在達成目標前,以綜合方式運用。本研究訪談到為了孩子又重新投入童軍運動的家長服務員,在成為職場上中、高階主管的歲月裡,厚實累積的領導經驗運用在童軍團,得以交互參照、如魚得水。
This research aimed to explore the impact of leadership experience in scout movement upon leadership in workplace. Leadership was the capability of continuous learning and development. Scout troop exercise offered an avenue that was beneficial for continuous learning and individual development, something manifested in either the endeavor to be an example or the immersed in environment. This was exemplary in explicating that leadership in and of itself could be taught and cultivated, with leadership experience accumulated through a variety of experiences.The research proceeded discussions based on path-goal theory within the contingency theory. Through purposive sampling in the qualitative research method, four research participants at mid-to-advanced levels in their careers were selected, and they were either with a history of participating in scout movement as school students, or currently active scout leaders, volunteers, and so on. In-depth interviews were conducted in semi-structured and face-to-face manner.Leadership experiences accumulated though either participating scout movement in school, advancing into seniors, performing as a big event coordinator or cadre; or accumulated through volunteer scouter, adult leader, scoutmaster, senior adult leader, all the way to core leader group, altogether would have positive influence upon career leadership, something consistent with path-goal theory. Environment-wise scout movement built up varied combination of group members, with leaders employing supportive, participative, directive, achievement-oriented leadership styles to exercise leadership effectiveness and reach the common goal.The practice of workplace leadership manifested in ways that a team achieve performance aims under motivated, passion-activated circumstances. Regardless of differed industrial traditions and different corporation cultures in mature companies and star-ups, human nature was the common ground. Whenever seniors showed empathy to amateurs’ concerns, or the group goals went beyond the comfort zones, a combination of supportive, participative, directive, achievement-oriented leadership styles would be expected to be at work.This research also found those adult leaders who came back to scout movement for their kids had employed what they have cumulated in mid-to-advanced level career leadership to scout group leadership, in a mutually reinforcing and enriching way.
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Keywords
童軍運動, 領導力, 路徑目標理論, Scout Movement, Leadership, Path-Goal Theory
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