外籍配偶補校教育學習參與障礙之研究-以台北縣淡水鎮一所國小補校為例 A Study on Foreign Spouses’ Barriers to Learning in Literacy Education: A Case Study of Literacy Education in an Elementary School in Danshuei, Taipei County

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本研究基於對外籍配偶學習的關懷,旨在探究外籍配偶補校教育學習參與障礙的因素,及瞭解問題解決的方式。 首先蒐集並研析相關文獻與研究,進而擬定研究架構,以質性研究法進行,並編擬「台北縣重興國小(化名)外籍配偶補校教育參與學習障礙訪談大綱」為研究工具,進行半結構式訪談。研究採立意取樣,選取2位學校人員及3位越南籍外籍配偶為訪談對象。經資料分析與討論獲得以下結論: 一、外籍配偶學習特性 (一)外籍配偶的學習動機來自於外在環境的反應及滿足「母職角色實踐」及「工作生活」的需求。(二)外籍配偶具有沉默接收、服從權威特質的學習型態。(三)外籍配偶擁有歡喜學習、輕鬆自在的學習態度。(四)外籍配偶學習是為解決日常生活問題。(五)外籍配偶參與學習時,具害怕、焦慮的情緒壓力特質。 二、外籍配偶參與學習障礙因素 (一)外籍配偶參與學習障礙個人層面有生理、心理、語言溝通、家人關係、同儕相處障礙因素,而以心理因素障礙最大;又有寫不出國字、不瞭解語意的語言溝通障礙困境。(二)外籍配偶參與學習障礙在學校層面有教師教學、教材內容、課程規劃、學校情境的障礙因素。不適宜的教師教學方式、教學態度,不符合生活化、實用性的教材及不符外籍配偶需求的課程,影響外籍配偶學習意願。注音符號的學習最讓外籍配偶覺得困難。 三、外籍配偶補校教育參與學習障礙問題解決方式 (一)外籍配偶參與學習時,屬於個人層面障礙因素,存在著個別間的差異,會因個性不同、學習能力不同而有不同的因應方式,也會自己找尋資源,以將障礙排除。(二)外籍配偶對於學校層面障礙因素的解決,大都以反求諸己的方式因應,她們相信老師與權威,對於學校課程安排不會批判,選擇沉默接收。(三)學校人員用心選擇教材版本,結合節慶、時令、地方風土文物內涵,以生活化、實用性的教材提升學習者興趣,排除學習參與障礙;然補校課程規劃,未能符應外籍配偶學習需求。(四)外籍配偶教師風趣、幽默的教學特質,耐心、細心的教學態度,活潑多元的教學技巧,照顧學習者生理、心理需求,能提升學習者學習興趣,排除外籍配偶學習參與障礙的心理因素。(五)學校主管單位重視外籍配偶參與學習問題,有專屬的學習場域,而且場域舒適、合宜,能提升外籍配偶參與學習意願,排除參與學習障礙。建議如下: 一、對政府單位之建議 (一)發展外籍配偶家庭社會支持的網絡,落實新住民相關政策,提供實質性的幫助。(二)整合外籍配偶專責單位、專家學者及第一線的外籍配偶教師,持續性研發外籍配偶補校教育學習教材,提供教學者多元的資源。 二、對學校單位之建議 (一)課程規劃以中文識字為主,融合公民、工作、媒介素養,符應外籍配偶學習動機與需求。(二)建立外籍配偶教學師資培訓機制與獎勵制度,鼓勵並儲備優良外籍配偶教學師資。(三)教師應瞭解外籍配偶學習特性、注重外籍配偶個人心理與同儕層面障礙,營造伙伴共學的溫馨學習環境。(四)重視外籍配偶補救教學與輔導 三、 對未來研究之建議 取樣對象可以擴及不同國籍;研究內容可從外籍配偶的母國教育程度、來台年數、個人特質及自我概念、學習能力等個人學習環境探討,再擴及學校老師學習輔導的措施;研究工具輔以「自我概念量表」、「學習成就量表」使研究分析更精緻。
Abstract With the concern of foreign spouses’ learning, the purpose of this study aims at exploring the factors leading to barriers to learning mandarin when taking literacy education in Taiwan. This study tries to understand how to tackle those problems. First, abundant of relevant literatures and studies are browsed and data have been accumulated for further analysis. Furthermore, the research structure is conducted by the use of Qualitative Research and an “Interview Outline” is designed to be the research tool. On the other hand, the “Semi-structured Interviews” method is adopted to collect materials while “Judgment sampling” is altogether used. Two school faculties and three Vietnamese foreign spouses are selected as interviewees in this study. After thorough data analysis and discussion, the conclusions are listed below: 1. The learning characteristics of foreign spouses: A. Their learning motive mainly comes from the responses to their surroundings and the needs to satisfy their roles as mothers and workers. B. They are inclined to blind acceptance and submission to authorities during the studies. C. They enjoy learning in playful and relaxing attitudes. D. They learn on the purpose of solving problems on a daily basis. E. They are often in stressful emotions such as fears and anxieties when studying. 2. Factors leading to learning difficulties of foreign spouses: A. On personal level, difficulties involve with physical factors、mental factors、communications、family relationship and peer relationship, etc. And of which, the mental factor ranked the first-- the worries of not being able to write Chinese characters or understand the contexts. B. On school’s level, difficulties involve with teachers’ teaching methods and attitudes、teaching materials、curriculum planning and school atmosphere, etc. Foreign spouses may lose interests in learning due to unsuitable teaching methods、attitudes and courses that unfits their needs for practical daily use. They feel most difficult in learning phonetic symbols. 3. The approaches adopted by foreign spouses and the schools: A. For problems on personal level, foreign spouses may employ different settlements accordingly by their own personalities and capabilities. They may also seek helpful resources to rule out the obstacles. B. When it comes to problems of school’s level, most of them trust teachers and the school authorities. They generally reflect on themselves for solution and accept the courses arranged by school instead of challenging it. C. The school attentively chooses practical teaching materials in which Taiwanese local festivals and social customs are included to motivate them. However, the courses may not completely meet their learning expectations. D. With patience, care and humorous expression, teachers skillfully coach foreign students with regard to their needs in order to eliminate possible mental factors against their learning. E. The school administration pays attention to their learning problems. It therefore provides them with exclusive learning places which are comfortable and suitable for them to study. Based on the above observations, advices are stated below: 1. Advices for government authorities: A. Develop social network to support foreign spouses and their families. Execute the relevant policies for new immigrants and provide substantial assistance. B. Integrate competent authorities、specialists and teachers on the front line to keep innovating learning materials so as to provide educators with diverse teaching sources. 2. Advices for school administrations: A. Course arrangements should be mainly on Mandarin literacy, along with the issues on moralities of life、work and media literacy to suit their learning motives and needs. B. Establish a sound mechanism to cultivate qualified teachers and perfect the incentive system enough to encourage them. C. Teachers should understand their learning characteristics and pay attention to obstacles caused by their mental and peer factors. Favorable learning environment is advised for mutual and co-operative learning. D. Emphases should be laid on remedial teaching and student counseling. 3. Advices for future studies: Samples could be extended to subjects from different countries to make a comparison. Based on the background understanding of foreign spouses’ learning environment in terms of their educational levels、years spent in Taiwan、personal straits、self-concept and learning abilities, etc., the content of studies can be further extended to exploring the counseling measures taken by school teachers. Research tools applied with the “Self- Concept Scale” and “Academic Achievement Evaluation” will make a sounder and more thorough research analysis.
外籍配偶, 補校教育, 學習參與障礙, Foreign spouses, Literacy education, Barriers to learning