青少年母親親職適應團體之成效研究-Bowen家庭系統理論之運用 Effect research of junior-high students’female parenting groups based on Bowen Family Systems theory

Date
2018
Authors
張在蓓
Chang, Tsai-Pei
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Abstract
本研究旨在探討Bowen家庭系統理論運用於青少年母親親職適應團體在降低團體成員親子間焦慮、提升其親子分化程度,與改善其情緒成熟度的立即性與追蹤性效果。本研究採取混合研究中之崁入式準實驗設計,以不等組前後測實驗設計分為實驗組六人與比較組五人,實驗介入為連續八週、每週二小時之運用Bowen家庭系統理論的青少年母親親職適應團體,以評估本研究團體之實驗介入在各依變項的立即性效果,並於研究團體結束後四周對實驗組進行追蹤測,以評估本研究團體實驗介入的追蹤性效果。此外,本研究在團體結束後一週進行焦點團體訪談,以質性研究資料探討研究參與者在參加此團體後,對其個人、親子關係、及家庭系統的幫助與改變情形,作為量化研究結果之佐證與補充。 本研究結果發現:在量化研究部分,經過研究團體之實驗介入後,研究參與者的親子間焦慮下降幅度約50%;其親子分化程度之提升具有立即性效果與追蹤性效果;而其情緒成熟度則不具有立即性效果與追蹤性效果。在質性研究部分,在參與研究團體之後,研究參與者主觀感知的幫助與改變包括:1. 個人內在的幫助與改變:能更多覺察與調整內在期待與教養信念,在情緒性反應部分增進自我控制的能力與方法;2. 母親角色再定位:重新檢視身為青少年母親的自己,思考其角色與功能,並嘗試聚焦在自我成長與情緒照顧;3. 親子互動的幫助與改變:調節親子界限,提供子女獨立嘗試自主的空間,同時增進親子正向的連結;4. 親子衝突的改善:能降低親子衝突,或是親子衝突雖未減少,但能採取情緒穩定的方式進行因應;5. 家庭系統成員互動的改變:部分成員之親子互動、夫妻與子女的三角關係、以及娘家家庭系統成員互動有正面改變發生。最後,本研究依據上述研究結果,提出本研究之限制與未來建議。
This study aimed to examine and explore the effects of a parenting group based on Bowen theory for mothers with young adolescents in Taiwan. An embedded quasi-experimental design of mixed method research was used for the study. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the parenting group on reducing participants’ anxiety toward the parent/adolescent relationship, enhancing differentiation within the mother/child subsystem, as well as increasing participants’ emotion maturity. The secondary purpose of this study was to explore participants’ personal experiences and understandings of the parenting group in the changes among oneself, the mother/adolescent relationship, as well as the family systems. The group model consisted of eight two-hour sessions for a total of sixteen hours for eight successive weeks. Participants were eleven mothers with at least one young adolescent child in Taipei, and they participated in either the experimental group or the comparative group. For the purpose of the study, both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to collect and analyze the data. Quantitative data were collected at the pre-test and post-test scores on the Chinese versions of Differentiation in the Family System Scale (DIFS) and Differentiation of Self Inventory-Revised (C-DSI) for both of the groups. Participants’ mother’s anxiety toward the mother/adolescent relationship scores were assessed by the group observer in each group session. In addition, participants’ follow-up scores on the DIFS-Chinese version and C-DSI in the experimental group were collected four weeks after the group ended. Qualitative data were collected by a focus-group interview for participants one week after each of the two groups ended. Results of this study showed that participants’ anxiety toward the mother/adolescent relationship decreased about 50%. Results of the ANCOVA analyses and t tests indicated that there were immediate and follow-up effects on increasing differentiation within the mother/child subsystem for the experimental group. However, no immediate nor follow-up effects on improving participants’ emotion maturity were found. Further, qualitative data were coded and analyzed using thematic analysis, and findings revealed that the parenting group provided assistance to participants’ intrapersonal changes as well as the positive changes in their mother/adolescent relationships and family systems. The implications of these findings for the parenting group using Bowen theory as well as the limitations of this study and suggestions for the future study are discussed.
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青少年母親, 情緒成熟, 親子分化, 親職團體, Bowen家庭系統理論, Bowen Family Systems Theory, Differentiation within the mother/child subsystem, Emotional maturity, Parenting group, Mothers with young adolescents
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