不同圖片類型對於看圖寫作表現之影響

No Thumbnail Available

Date

2008

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title

Publisher

Abstract

利用圖片引導英文寫作在台灣十分普遍。於看圖寫作評量中,考試者必須藉由觀看圖片、了解圖意、詮釋圖意,把視覺的訊息轉化為文字的表達。這個研究的目的在於將三格連環圖片分類,並檢視不同類型對於英文寫作表現之影響。本研究中,三格連環圖片以文本結構,故事文法和驚奇結局三大原則為分類基礎,分為以下五種:時間組、步驟過程組、主題發展組、因果組(結果可預測)、因果組(結果不可預測)。本分類經過三位台中一中英文教師之認證,也排除字頻因素的可能影響後且為求量的研究,本研究以文章總字數、相異詞比例、T-單位的平均長度方式分別測試字彙量、字彙量豐富度、句子複雜度,並利用one-way ANOVA及ANCOVA做資料分析,以此找出何種三格連環圖片最能引導出寫作者的寫作能力。以文章總字數而論,因果組(結果可預測)、因果組(結果不可預測)分別引導出顯著性最高及次高的文章長度。而這兩種圖片類型,儘管並非照片,但完全符合Hooper et al. (1994, p. 388) 所提議的有效引導寫作圖片的準則。至於相異詞比例,主題發展組及時間組引出的作文有著顯著性較高的字彙豐富度。在這兩種較靜態及缺乏連結點的圖片類型中,受試者較不受限於圖片內容,反而會想像故事情節因而運用較多元化的字彙。最後,在T-單位的平均長度方面,則沒有任何顯著性的差異。也就是說,不同的圖片類型對於句子複雜度並無任何影響。
The use of picture prompts to elicit English writing samples is a common practice in Taiwan. In this type of writing assessment, examinees are required to compose paragraphs by looking at and understanding a picture sequence, interpreting the picture sequence, and then transferring the visual information into the verbal mode of expression. The purpose of this study is to classify three-frame picture prompts and to examine the effect of different types of three-frame picture prompts on writing performance. Based on Sinatra’s text organization pattern (2000), story grammar (Mandler& Johnson, 1977; Rumelhart, 1975; Stein & Glenn, 1979) and studies on readers’ expectancy of the consequence as classification criteria, three-frame picture prompts fall into five different types: the time-based type, the steps-in-a-process type, the topic-development type, the cause-and-effect type with an expected consequence, and the cause-and-effect type with an unexpected consequence. With the validation of the classification and the exclusion of the potential interference of the factor ofword frequency, each writing sample for different picture prompts is scored using three different measures: the length of writing products, lexical density (the type-token ratio), and the mean length of T-units. These measures respectively assess fluency, vocabulary diversity, and linguistic complexity of sentences. The collected data are analyzed with one-way ANOVA and ANCOVA. In terms of the length of writing products, the cause-and-effect type with an expected consequence elicits the longest writing products and the cause-and-effect type with an unexpected consequence elicits the second longest. These two cause-effect picture prompts meet nearly all the criteria proposed by Hooper et al. (1994, p. 388) except that they are line drawings rather than photographs. As for the type-token ratio, the topic-development type and the time-based type elicit samples with higher type-token ratios. In these two types of picture prompts which lack coherence and dynamics, subjects are less confined to the static content of the pictures, thus employing a more diversified vocabulary. As to the mean length of T-units, there is no significant difference among the five types of three-frame picture prompts. There is no significant difference in the effect on syntactic complexity.

Description

Keywords

圖片類型, 看圖寫作, 相異詞比例, T-單位, 文本結構, 故事文法, 故事結局預測, picture prompt, writing, type-token ratio, t-unit, text pattern, story grammar, expectancy of consequences

Citation

Collections