中國大陸憲法體系的法律全球化與在地化 Legal Globalization and Legal Localization of Constitutional System in Mainland China

Date
2021
Authors
林子玄
Lin, Tzu-Hsuan
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Abstract
1978年中共開始進行改革開放,運用國家權力來主動支配法律的制訂並決定法律制度變遷的路徑與速度。在全球化的浪潮過程中,為了堅守社會主義的意識型態以及維持中國共產黨的領導地位,藉由提出「依法治國」及「建立中國特色的社會主義法律體系」等概念,來加強維繫中國共產黨的合法性以及黨政關係之間的平衡點。中國大陸加入世界貿易組織後,面臨經濟全球化的影響,開始進行相關法規的立法與修正,以符合國際法律框架並與世界接軌。法律全球化的影響下,中國大陸憲法體系透過法治來規範和限制政府的公權力,並保護市場主體的經濟權利,從政策保障到法律保障,進而到憲法保障的位階。然而,為了避免受到西方資本主義價值衝擊的挑戰,以及有效維護社會主義核心價值觀,毛澤東率先將馬克思主義與中國革命具體實踐結合起來成為「馬克思主義中國化」、鄧小平理論的創立到江澤民的「三個代表」重要思想的形成,再到胡錦濤的科學發展觀,以解釋、解決中國現實經濟問題為出發點,對中國大陸現有的各種法律進行經濟分析即是中國大陸法律體系在地化過程。在中共改革開放和經濟發展中,政府和市場都扮演了重要角色。一方面是政府放權讓利和市場不斷壯大,另一方面,政府又非常積極有為,干預非常廣泛。從以「先行先試」到「可複製」、「可推廣」的創新立法制度經驗,推動經濟特區、自貿區與RCEP的設立,到習近平提出一帶一路的倡議,這些措施不僅契合發展中國家的現實需求,同時協助推廣中國大陸法治建設、中國模式的「在地全球化」的法治發展戰略。
The People's Republic of China (PRC) has used state power to actively make laws and determine the path and speed of changes in the legal system since the start of “reform and opening up” in 1978. In the process of globalization, in order to adhere to the socialist ideology and maintain the leadership of the party, the Communist Party of China (CPC) has proposed concepts such as “Rule of Law” and “establishing The Socialist System of Laws with Chinese Characteristics” to enhance the regime's legitimacy and balance the relationship between the party and the government.The PRC created and amended relative laws to conform to the international legal framework after it joined the World Trade Organization and faced the impact of economic globalization. Therefore, the PRC’s constitutional system regulates and restricts public power through the rule by law and protects the economic rights of market participants. It transformed the protection of the economic rights of market participants from policy guarantees to legal guarantees, and then to the level of constitutional guarantees.However, there is a localization process of legal system in the PRC. To avoid the impact of Western capitalist values, and to effectively maintain the core values of socialism, Mao Zedong took the lead in combining Marxism with specific practice of the Chinese revolution to alter Marxism to the Chinese context. The establishment of Deng Xiaoping Theory, the formation of Jiang Zemin's important thought of “the Theory of Three Represents”, and then Hu Jintao's “the Scientific Outlook on Development” all try to interpret and solve the PRC's real economic problems and provide the foundation for laws governing economic development. Both the government and the market have played an important role in the PRC's “reform and opening up” and economic development. On the one hand, the government pushes decentralization of power and transfer of profit and the market continues togrow. On the other hand, the government is very active and intervenes very extensively. The government promotes the establishment of special economic zones, free trade zones, RCEPs, and Xi Jinping's “Belt and Road Initiative”, from pilot policies to replicable and extendable innovative legislative system. These measures not only meet the practical needs of developing countries, but also help build rule of law in mainland China and develop the strategy of “local globalization” of the Chinese model.
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Keywords
法律全球化, 法律在地化, 中國特色社會主義法律體系, 馬克思主義中國化, 中國模式, 在地全球化, Legal Globalization, Legal Localization, The Socialist System of Laws with Chinese Characteristics, Marxism to Chinese context, the Chinese model, Local Globalization
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