教育政策發展之論述分析—以九五高中新課程為例 A Discourse Analysis of the Development of Educational Policy:Taking the New Guidelines for High School Curriculum as an Example

Abstract
中文摘要 本研究旨在透過論述分析來探究九五高中新課程政策發展歷程,希冀藉此為未來的教育政策發展尋求更合理的互動關係,以及促進政策利害關係人的利益獲得最大化的整合。本研究之研究目的包括分析九五高中新課程政策之爭議、分析九五高中新課程政策不同利害關係人對於政策爭議之論述、分析九五高中新課程政策發展之權力運作情形,以及針對九五高中新課程政策發展歷程進行批判與反省,最後將根據研究結果提出結論,並對未來教育政策發展提出建議。 為達上述研究目的,本研究採取論述分析方法,藉由訪談資料、文件資料與報紙文章的蒐集,歸納研究發現,提出結論與建議。本研究獲致之結論如下: 壹、九五高中新課程政策發展爭議,源於各利害關係人立場與利益之差異性。 貳、九五高中新課程政策利害關係人對於爭議之論述,乃基於利益分配與權力關係之不平等,所發出的不平之鳴。 參、九五高中新課程政策發展歷程中,越趨近權力核心者能夠運用的權力策略越加多元,顯示權力運作關係之不對稱性。 肆、九五高中新課程政策缺乏願景的規劃,使教師、家長與學生在面對教育改革時,產生不安定感,降低其配合意願。 伍、九五高中新課程政策缺乏足夠的評估資訊,形成結構偏見,造成課綱委員進行規劃的困難。 陸、九五高中新課程政策發展忽略人際互動的微觀政治歷程,社會聲望高者仍扮演影響決策的主要角色,造成其他利害關係人利益的犧牲。 柒、教育部忽略對於個體所處生活文化意義之理解與關懷,缺乏完整配套措施的規劃,造成學校教育人員在執行政策上的困擾。 捌、課綱委員固守其習焉不察之價值,缺乏對於學校情境設身處地的理解與憐憫,造成政策目標與學校執行的落差。 玖、學科專家與教師之本位主義造成權力偏見,使得九五高中新課程政策發展歷程充滿政治與利益的爭奪,犧牲學習主體的利益。 拾、學校教育人員信守其對舊有文化的偏見,對於九五高中新課程政策發展之參與不夠積極,造成政策實施時間受到延誤。 拾壹、九五高中新課程政策發展爭議的產生,乃由於缺乏理想溝通情境的建構。 最後根據本研究結論,分別提出對於教育部行政人員、專家學者、學校教育人員、家長與社會大眾,以及後續研究之相關建議。
Abstract The purpose of this research is to explore the process of the development of the new guidelines for high school curriculum using the discourse analysis method. It is conducted in an attempt to seek a much reasonable interrelation as well as to make possible the highest integration of the interests of all policy stakeholders. There are five purposes of this study: (1) to analyze the issues of the new guidelines for high school curriculum; (2) to explore each stakeholder’s discourse about the issues of the new guidelines for high school curriculum; (3) to analyze the exercise of power in the process of the development of the new guidelines for high school curriculum;(4) to criticize and reflect on the process of the development of the new guidelines for high school curriculum. Finally, based on the findings and discoveries obtained from this study, conclusions are drawn and suggestions are provided to the future policy development. In order to achieve the above-mentioned purpose, discourse analysis is adopted as the research approach. Interviews, documents, and news articles are used for the data collection. Based on the data analysis, research findings are as follows: Ⅰ. The issues of the new guidelines for high school curriculum result from the differences in the position and interests of each stakeholder. Ⅱ. Each stakeholder’s discourse about the issues of the new guidelines for high school curriculum represents a voice of protest against the mal-distribution of the advantages as well as the inequality of the power relationship. Ⅲ. In the process of the development of the new guidelines for high school curriculum, people being closer to the core of power could exercise much more diverse power strategies than others. This displays the asymmetry of the power relationship. Ⅳ. The development is lack of a prospect planning, which not only makes teachers, parents and students feel unease when they face education reform, but also reduces their willingness to cooperate. Ⅴ. The development is lack of adequate evaluative data, which brings about a structural bias, making its planning by the commissioners more difficult. Ⅵ. The development disregards the micropolitical relationship among communication and interaction. People of high position still play a key role on decision-making at the cost of other stakeholders’ benefits. Ⅶ. The Ministry of Education not only has little understanding of or concern about the cultural meaning of an individuals’ life, but also lacks a complete fallback- planning package, which hinders school educators from implementing policy. Ⅷ. The commissioners of the new guidelines for high school curriculum are too accustomed to their own presumption to call it in question, and have little understanding of or empathy for the schools’ conditions and their educators, which enlarges the gap between policy goals and its implementation in schools. Ⅸ. Sectionalism of each specialist or teacher contributes to a bias concerning the exercise of power, and brings about battles for political interests during the development, which sacrifices the interests of the learning subject. Ⅹ. The educators in school hold fest to a bias for old culture, and don’t have much chance to take part in the development, which delays the time of its implementation. XI. The issues concerning the development should be solved by establishing an ideal means of communication.
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Keywords
教育政策發展, 論述分析, 九五高中新課程政策, the development of educational policy, discourse analysis, the New Guidelines for High School Curriculum
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