重體力負荷之中高齡人工物料搬運勞工之職務再設計 Job Accommodation for Middle and-Old Aged workers of Heavy Manual Labor:Experiences from A Manual Materials Handling Worker

dc.contributor 張千惠 zh_TW
dc.contributor Chang, Chien-Huey en_US
dc.contributor.author 楊惠雅 zh_TW
dc.contributor.author Yang, Hui-Ya en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2019-08-28T08:22:04Z
dc.date.available 不公開
dc.date.available 2019-08-28T08:22:04Z
dc.date.issued 2018
dc.description.abstract 本研究旨在探究果菜市場重體力負荷之中高齡人工物料搬運勞工的核心工作、就業困境與職務再設計,以及職業災害發生後,因應工作需求及體力退化之核心工作、就業困境與職務再設計(本研究採廣義職務再設計定義,亦即,排除職場上任何障礙之方式)。透過質性研究法之個案研究方式蒐集相關資料,輔以研究者訪談札記、參與現場拍照、錄影,並以質性研究軟體NVivo第十版進行分析,研究結果如下: 任職果菜市場重體力負荷之中高齡人工物料搬運勞工之就業困境包括:(一)生理因素困境:工作時間久,亦即,搬運量多、超負荷搬運因想早點回家休息故一次搬兩箱。(二)心理因素困境:怕沒搬完失去工作、節慶或過年前搬運數量增加兩倍。壓力大沒時間喝水。(三)職場因素困境如:雇主沒有為其加保沒有任何保險、就業環境不佳、薪資受季節氣候影響。因應上述困境,所考慮的職務再設計包括:生理因素造成身體勞累之職務再設計主要以調整工作方法,亦即,分裝運送過程中與同事間輪流分擔搬運。因沒搬完而失去工作,乃屬於個人心理因素,因為該職場常缺勞工不會因此失去工作。針對壓力大沒時間喝水建議研究參與者搬運前補充適量水份,請雇主在每個中盤商攤位擺放礦泉水或杯水,讓現場人工物料搬運勞工可以適時補充水份。職場因素之就業困境與整體大環境相關,並非職務再設計能改善部分。 職災後,重體力負荷之中高齡人工物料搬運勞工之就業困境包括:(一)生理因素困境如:工作時間久導致疲累、晚班工作到凌晨對身體過勞影響、職災後加上中高齡因素體力更差。(二)心理因素困境如:職災後想要告雇主,怕告不贏且無法回去原職場工作、職災發生時恐懼失去生命、職災後想換更適合工作但難找。(三)職場因素困境如:雇主沒有為研究參與者投保,故無法申請職災理賠以及中高齡職務再設計服務、研究參與者每月所賺費用不足支付家庭開銷,連健保費都繳不起;以及就業環境不佳等困境。 職業災害發生後,因應生理因素造成身體勞累之職務再設計主要以: (一)調整工作方法:與同事間輪流分擔搬運,讓研究參與者在沒有輪替搬運時有足夠休息時間,以減緩身體勞累。(二)提供就業輔具:提供日本護腰服以減輕搬運、負重、堆疊腰部及膝蓋負擔。因應心理因素造成之困境,其職務再設計主要為家人支持部分,其他因雇主或職場所造成心理困境則建議雇主改善僱用條件。然而職場因素所造成就業困境與整體大環境因素相關,並非職務再設計能改善部分。 研究結果發現調整工作方法應該被審慎思考(而非僅考慮輔具而已)、職場工作條件亟待提升、環境個人因素交互作用影響職場工作者健康與工作表現、大多數勞工均不知自己權益、且現行法規對勞工權益之保障亦不足。最後本研究針對個人工作者、職場(環境)、政府相關單位提出職務再設計的建言。 zh_TW
dc.description.abstract The purpose of this study was to explore the employment dilemma and job accommodation of elderly material handling workers with the heavy workload in the fruit and vegetable market, as well as the employment dilemma and job accommodation in response to job demand and physical deterioration after their occupational disasters. Through the case study method of qualitative research , and collecting relevant materials, researcher's interview notes, photographing and video recording onsute situation, and analyzing through the qualitative research software NVivo. The research results were as:The employment dilemma of the elderly manual material handling workers in the heavy load included:(1) Physical fatigue such as:long working hours, heavy handling, and increacing the speed in order to finish the job earilier; (2) Psychological pressures such as:the fear to loose the job, the increase of work during the important holidays, and the lack of rest time to consume water;(3) Poor employment conditions such as:no insurance, poor employment environment, and salary affected by the climate. The employment pressure of the elderly manual material handling workers in the heavy physical load after the occupational disaster includes:(1) Physical fatigue such as:long working hours, physical impact due to night shift, and the worse physical conditions after the occupational disaster;(2) Psychological stress such as:fear to loose job and life, unable to find a more suitable and easier job;(3) Poor employment conditions such as:unable to apply for compensation or job accommodation services for middle and old ages and senior workers, unable to afford the health insurance, and poor employment environment. In response to the above difficulties, the redesign of the position to be considered included: the redesign of the position of the physical fatigue caused by physiological factors was mainly to adjust the working method - the sharing of work between the colleagues during the packaging and transportation process. Psychological factors was the fear to lose their jobs. Because the employer usually hav’en enough workers, the emploees would not lose their jobs. It was just a personal psychological factor. For those who have no time to drink water, it was recommended for the participants to replenish the right amount of water before workingand the employer place mineral water or glass of water, so that the manual workers could replenish water when doing their work; the employment dilemma of the workplace factors was related to the overall environment, and it could not be done just by the job redesign. The employment distress of the traditional manual material handling labor among the heavy physical load after the occupational disaster included: (1) The physical factors such as the long working hours, the long night shift, the physical impact, and the employment after the occupational disaster is even worse. (2) Psychological factors such as: After the disaster, the worker wanted to sue the employer but was afraid to lose the trail. As a result, he will not be able to go back to the original workplace. When the occupational disaster occured, he might lose his life. After the disaster, he wanted to change to a more suitable job but has difficulties to find. (3) Difficulties in the workplace factors: employers did not offer insurance so the workers could not apply for claims and re-design services, some people earn less than the monthly expenses, and the family expenses could not be paid even by the health insurance. Some employees got the insurance by the unions because their employers did not offer it. After the occurrence of occupational disasters, the job accommodation of physical exertion due to physiological factors was mainly related to:(1) Adjusting the working method - taking turns to carry and carry it with colleagues, so that the research participants had enough rest time to slow down the body when there was no rotation. (2) Providing employment aids - providing Japanese belts to reduce waist and knee burden. Due to psychological factors, the redesign of their duties was mainly for family support. Others considerations were advised to improve their employment conditions due to the psychological dilemma caused by employers or the workplace. The employment dilemma caused by workplace factors was related to the overall environmental factors, and it could not be done just by the job accommodation The study found that the adjustment work methods should be carefully considered (not just the auxiliary tools), the workplace conditions need to be improved, and the interaction of environmental and personal factors affects the health and work performance of the workers. Most workers do not know their own rights, and the current regulations dose not offer protections,either. Finally, this study is focused on an individual worker, the workplace (environment), and the suggestions to the related government departments. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship 復健諮商研究所 zh_TW
dc.identifier G060417012E
dc.identifier.uri http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22G060417012E%22.&%22.id.&
dc.identifier.uri http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/89342
dc.language 中文
dc.subject 重體力負荷 zh_TW
dc.subject 中高齡 zh_TW
dc.subject 人工物料搬運勞工 zh_TW
dc.subject 職務再設計 zh_TW
dc.subject Heavy Manual Labor en_US
dc.subject Middle and Old Age en_US
dc.subject A Manual Materials en_US
dc.subject Job accommodation en_US
dc.title 重體力負荷之中高齡人工物料搬運勞工之職務再設計 zh_TW
dc.title Job Accommodation for Middle and-Old Aged workers of Heavy Manual Labor:Experiences from A Manual Materials Handling Worker en_US
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