巴黎•再現--台灣重遊旅者的再凝視與攝影實踐 Paris.Representation--The Second Gaze and Photographic Practice of Taiwanese Re-travelers

Chia-Pei Huang
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Urry(1999)曾說旅行的凝視仰賴符號,而觀光旅遊可說是一種蒐集符號的過程。觀光客在旅程中蒐集自己在出發前所建構出的夢想符號,該符號不只是我們眼睛看到的影像,無論是社會賦予的或是自身建構,每一個符號在表象背後都有深層的意涵。一地透過廣告宣傳行銷各個景點,不同的旅行者接受不同媒體或訊息提供的目的地意象訊息,將景點拍攝成相同或是不同的影像,因此,照片可說是驗證旅行者所建構出的觀光想像中最佳的例證。然而,旅行者所拍攝的照片時常受到社會的影響,Hall(1997)提出「再現迴圈」來解釋旅行者受到媒體影響而重複拍攝宣傳媒介上出現之影像的現象,他們受到推廣地方行銷的機構所建構出的「地方神話」影響,一次次地複製、傳播「經典影像」,穩固「經典影像」的地位,而自助旅行者雖不同於大眾觀光客,但依舊會受到「再現迴圈」的影響。 為了解台灣自助旅行者的影像再現特質,及重遊自助旅行者在前、後旅程影像再現差異,本研究以台灣人最常拜訪的城市--巴黎為案例進行探討。首先利用內容分析法找出台灣旅遊書中最常被再現的影像。接著,對20位去過巴黎兩次以上的重遊旅客進行訪談,除傳統訪談法外,本研究也請受訪者提供照片以更進一步利用照片引談法進行訪談。最後,藉由受訪著的談話及照片找出受到社會影響的「經典影像」及表達個人經驗的「非經典影像」,並分析台灣自助旅行者的影像再現特質。 研究結果顯示,台灣自助旅行者在出發前被媒體建構出對巴黎的浪漫想像,並且希望在旅程中透過實際景觀將想像具體化,因此在旅程中選擇再現許多與旅遊書上相同主體的影像,並且捕捉想像中的「巴黎感覺」。 就旅程中具體的影像再現部分,研究結果將台灣自助旅行者的影像再現分成十種範疇。首先,依據Scarles(2009)的研究將台灣旅行者的再現影像分成五大類:政治加工品、反身性展演、對地方的想像、感官的體現及倫理上的提醒,其中政治加工品屬於旅行者被社會影響下所再現的照片,是較客觀的影像表達,而其他四者則屬於旅行者較主觀的個人想法。不同於Scarles(2009)的分類,筆者再將蒐集到的影像再現分成另外五大類型,其中包含:用照片表達情感、地方之舞、旅行中的個人事件、具體化其所學、旅程的符號式紀念等五項範疇,這五項皆屬於旅行者自身旅程的紀錄,顯現了台灣自助旅行者的特質。 若比較旅行者前後兩次旅程的照片,會發現旅行者在第一次旅程時深受社會及媒體影響,大量拍攝旅遊書上再現的「經典影像」;而第二次旅程中「經典影像」的拍攝比例下降,「政治加工品」除外其他範疇的影像比例增加,換句話說,重遊旅客的第二次旅行已跳脫「再現迴圈」,符合MacCannell提出的「二次凝視」概念。 對台灣自助旅行者出發前的想像來說,其受到大眾媒體賦予的歐洲中心主義影響,認為巴黎總是給人美好的一面;就旅程中的再現特質而言,自助旅行者確實客觀地會捕捉媒體投射的巴黎意象,但也會真實且主觀地紀錄自身旅程所觀察或經驗到的事物。針對此項議題,本研究最後提出幾項實務及後續研究建議供參考。
The gaze is constructed through signs, and tourism involves the collection of signs. (Urry, 1990) Traveler will collect the imagined signs which were constructed before leaving. The signs are not only the images we see but also contain deeper implications, no matter they are given by society or constructed by travelers themselves.Tourist sites are sold through advertisements. Different traveler accepts different destination images from different media and message. In this way, traveler will shoot the same or different image. As a result, photos could be the best exampler of vertifying the touristic imaginations constructed by travelers. However, the travelers’ photos are often influenced by the social forces. Hall(1997) proposed “circle of representation” to explain the phenomenon that travelers are influenced by the media so that they would shoot the images presented on media repeatedly. They are impacted by “place myths” which were made by place-marketing institutes. They reproduce and disseminate “classical images”, which reinforce the position of “classical images”. The results also show that independent travelers would also influenced by “circle of representation”, even they supposed to be dissimilar to mass tourists. The aim of this article is to find out the image representational characteristics of Taiwanese independent traveler and the differences between their first and second journey. This research focuses on the most-visited European city for Taiwanes—Paris. First, the author use content analysis to find out the images which are represented most frequently on guidebooks. Then, interview Taiwanese independent re-travlers who visited Paris more than two times. Aside from traditiopnal in-depth interview, the author asks the interviewees for photos to get research data through photo-elicitation. At last, find out the “classical images” which are constructed by society and “non-classical images” expressing personal experiences to explain the image representational charateristics of Taiwanese independent travelers. The result shows that Taiwanese independent travelers had constructed “romantic” imaginations of Paris before leaving. Also, they would like to embody them throght landscapes on journeys. As a result, Taiwanese independent travelers would choose the same image as in guidebooks to represent. Also, they would collect the “feeling of Paris”. As for concrete image representation, the author divides the photos presented by Taiwanese independent traveler into tne groups.Aaccording to Scarles(2009), there are five groups: political artifact, reflexive performance, imagination of space, embodied visualities, ethical prompt. “Political artifact”, more objectve expression, is represented by travelers under social forces; the others are more subjective personal thoughts. Furthermore, beyond the five classifications, the author divides the photos took by Taiwanese independent travler into: expression of emotion, dance of a place, individual event on journeys, embodiment of what I have learned, symbolic memento of journeys. These not only record individual touristic experiences but also reveal the characteristics of Taiwanese independent traveler. When it comes to the comparasion of first and second journer, the result shows that most of the travelers would influenced by society forces, representing the same “classical images” with guidebooks, in other word, “political artifact”. However, the ratio of shooting “classical images” declines in the second journey, the ratio of the other classifications rether than “political artifact” increases. To sum up, Taiwanese independent re-travelers have detached from “circle of representation” and correspond to “second gaze”(MacCannell, 2001) When it comes to the imaginations of Taiwanese independent travelersbefore leaving, they think Paris is usually wonderful because being influenced by Eurocentricism endowed by mass media. As for the representational characteristics on journeys, independent traveler would collect images of Paris projected by media objectively. However, they would like to record something they observe or experience on journeys subjectively. Finally, the author proposes several practical opinions and suggestions for follow-up research.
自助旅行者, 再現迴圈, 觀光客凝視, 二次凝視, 照片引談法, Independent Traveller, Circle of Representation, Tourists’ Gaze, Second Gaze, Photo elicitation