Alasdair MacIntyre的德行思想及其品格教育意蘊之探究 The Study of Alasdair MacIntyre's Perspective on Virtue and its Implication for Character Education

Yu-Chih, Liu
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本研究旨在透過探究Alasdair MacIntyre的德行思想,從中梳理出其中的品格教育意蘊,透過概念分析以及詮釋學的研究方法,先了解其學思歷程、思想承襲及其批判立場,並以此為基礎闡釋其德行觀。 MacIntyre首先指出德行概念在歷史與空間上都是變動不居的,但即使德行的概念非常多元,他仍主張德行可以透過實踐、單一生命的敘述整體以及歷史這三個階段來完整地理解。其次,MacIntyre指出人類具有動物性,要從人類般的動物轉變為獨立的實踐理性者必須經過三個向度的轉變,包括能夠評價行動的理由、延後慾望的滿足並且對於未來有所覺知,而獨立的實踐理性者會以公共善做為行動的理由。要獲得人類社會的公共善就要理解人類社會是施與受的關係,而施者與受者各需要具備不同的德行,前者必須具備正義與慷慨的德行,後者必須具備知恩的德行。此外,MacIntyre提出受教大眾的理念,並且從實踐、單一生命的敘述整體以及傳統來論述教學,闡述其教育觀。最後,本研究發現MacIntyre的德行論述與我國儒家傳統脈絡之下的品格教育在某些內容尚有相同之處。 經過上述探究,MacIntyre德行思想當中的品格教育意蘊如下: 一、有德行的人以公共善以及內在善作為實踐追求的目標,且有能力管控情緒並評價自己的行動,更對未來有想像的能力。 二、品格教育應教導合作、尊重、負責、正義、誠實、勇敢、知恩、正當的慷慨等德行。 三、教導德行時應注意各德目的傳統意義。 四、應教育學生成為獨立的實踐理性者。 五、品格教育應該在民主的班級氣氛中進行。 六、在品格教育的過程中,教師要作為學生的榜樣。
This thesis aims at probing into Alasdair Macintyre’s perspective on virtue and its implication for character education. I use methodologies of conceptual analysis and hermeneutics. At beginning, I try to figure out MacIntyre’s experience of study, origins of thoughts and critical arguments. These contents are backgrounds to understand his perspective on virtue. First, although MacIntyre pointed out that the concepts of virtue are not invariable; he still argued that it could be understood comprehensively through three stages. It includes practice, the narrative unity of a single life and tradition. Secondly, he indicated that human beings are with animality. There are three dimensions which are necessary for becoming independent practical reasoners from human animals. They are abilities of evaluating actions, postponing satisfies of desires and knowing future. The independent practical reasoners would set common good as the reason of actions. To achieve common good of human society, one must understand it is a giving-and-receiving society. Furthermore; givers need the virtues of justice and generosity and receivers need the virtue of thanking. Besides, MacIntyre illustrated his view point of education not only by addressing the idea of educated public but also expounding the pedagogy from practice, narrative unity of a single life and tradition. Thirdly, I found out that there are some parts of viewpoint of virtue are the same between MacIntyre’s perspective and character education of Confucius tradition. Accordingly, the main findings are as follow: 1.Virtuous people would set internal good and common good as goals of actions. They can control their emotion and desire, evaluate his/her action and image the future. 2.Cooperation, respect, responsibility, justice, honesty, courage, thanking and just generosity are virtues which are necessary for character education. 3.Students need to understand the traditional contexts of each virtue. 4.Educating students to become independent practical reasoners. 5.Character education must proceed in democratic classes. 6.Teachers need to be the models of students.
Alasdair MacIntyre, 德行, 品格教育, Alasdair MacIntyre, Virtue, Character Education