EFL 學童適應語音變異之初探性研究

Chieh-Fang Hu
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Department of English, NTNU
本研究探討以英語為外語的學童調整辨識詞彙方式以處理說話者語音變異的能力。實驗設計採前測―實驗處置―後測模式,120位四年級學童隨機分至兩組。兩組學童聽一個英文故事,故事包含六個英文假字。語音變異組聽到假字(如ging)指涉的對象為已知且名稱類似的物品(如king),故事中的假字透過實驗操控,成為已知詞彙的非典型發音。控制組聽到同樣的假字,但假字所指涉的對象為新的、未知名稱的物品(如獨角外星人)。結果顯示:兩組學生於前測時都不選擇已知名稱的物品做為假字的指涉對象;後測兩組表現則有差異,語音變異組的學童選擇已知名稱的物品做為假字指涉對象的頻率增加,顯示語音變異組的學童辨識故事說話者所說詞彙的方式產生變化,以因應該說話者的語音變異。此外,較能因應說話者語音變異做調整的學童,其聲韻記憶、聲韻覺識、詞彙量的表現也較好。文末針對EFL 學童如何適應說話者的語音變異做出討論與建議。
This study investigated young EFL learners’ flexibility in adapting to atypical word forms in a referential context. In a pretest-exposureposttest paradigm, 120 fourth graders of Mandarin Chinese were randomly assigned to one of two exposure groups, listening to a story containing six novel forms. The form-shifted group heard the novel forms (e.g., ging) referring to name-alike known objects (e.g., king). The novel forms were thus manipulated as novel, atypical forms of known words in the story. The control group heard the novel forms referring to novel objects with unknown names (e.g., an alien with a horn). Although both groups of children avoided selecting name-known objects as referents of novel forms in the pretest, children in the formshifted group chose more name-known objects as referents of novel forms produced by the story teller in the posttest than the control group, indicating that they were adaptive to atypical word forms evidenced in the story. Children who made adjustments to atypical forms were those manifesting better performances in phonological memory, phonological awareness, and English vocabulary. The results are discussed in terms of EFL learners’ adaptation to novel/atypical forms that do not match the existing word representations in the mental lexicon.