設計工作者能力分析模式建構之研究 A Study on Constructing Competency Analysis Model

Abstract
本研究探討設計工作者能力分析的發展模式,預期所獲得結果,將對設計工作及能力本位相關的學術研究及教育訓練有所貢獻,並可以作為實際發展各類型之設計工作者之能力分析,並進而導引課程發展,再推廣至教育界與訓練界。 研究首先採用文獻分析方法,探討設計工作者特質和應具備之能力,以及探討各先進國家能力標準的發展模式及能力架構,獲得設計工作者特質及能力架構之初稿,再透過專家訪談、紮根理論、德懷術(Delphi)問卷調查及專家會議,針對能力標準發展模式與能力架構,進行研討修正,獲得能力標準建構模式及能力架構,最後並選擇商業設計者作為實際模擬建構之對象。研究獲得成果如下: 有關設計工作方面:設計工作的特質有八項,設計工作者的特質有十七項。能力分析方法方面:觀察研究法適合工作型態多樣化、自主性高等特質的能力分析;功能分析法適合創造能力、分析統整能力等特質的能力分析;而設計工作者最適合的能力分析方法是能力訪談法。 在建構以設計工作者發展能力分析的模式方面,模式分為確定目標、計畫擬定、計劃發展、計劃執行與評鑑等五階段。其中確定目標是確認能力內涵需求;計畫擬定包含擬定能力分析建構計畫以及組成能力分析小組;計畫發展是設計工作者類型分析和設計工作者能力分析方式,計畫執行包括資料收集、進行能力分析與建立能力目錄與內涵;評鑑則是進行設計能力評估與驗証。 依據上述的研究成果,本研究對設計工作業者、教育及職訓單位、後續研究提出建議。
The research was aimed to explore the development model of competency analysis of designers, which would contribute to the relevant academic research and educational training on design work and competency analysis as well as be utilized as a guidance of curriculum development. The research methods first undertook the literature review to explore the required skills and characteristics of the designers in several advanced countries to obtain the profile of the characteristics and competency structure of the designers. Based on the profile data, then the modification was made throughout the methods of the expert interviewing, grounded theory, Delphi, questionnaire survey and expert meeting. Major findings were illustrated as follows, 1. The designing work includes eight feature items of designing job and seventeen feature items of the designers. 2. Competency interviewing was suitable for the exploration of the characteristics of the designers. The observation approach was suitable for the characteristics analysis of various automatic types of jobs requiring more self-independence. Moreover, the function analysis was suitable for the characteristic analysis of innovation skills and analysis competency. 3. Five stages were designed to construct the competency analysis development model of designers, which are objective, planning, processing, execution and evaluation. In the planning stage, designers formed a “group of competency analysis” and drew a “plan for design work competency analysis” and “type analysis for designers’ competencies.” In the processing stage, data collecting” and “methods for designers’ competency analysis” were completed. In the execution stage, “literature collection and analysis,” “competency classification and content development” and “completion of designers’ competency standards” should be fulfilled. Moreover, the evaluation referred to the assessment and experimentation of the design competency.
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Keywords
設計工作者, 能力分析, 模式, Designers, competency, analysis, model
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