國民小學超額教師介聘之調查研究-以宜蘭縣為例 A Study on Employment of Surplus Teachers in Elementary Schools of Yi-Lan County

Abstract
本研究旨在探討宜蘭縣國民小學教育人員對超額教師產生因素及其對超額介聘實施之看法。為達成上述目的,本研究採問卷調查法並參酌文獻探討結果,編擬「國民小學超額教師介聘之調查研究問卷」,以宜蘭縣74所國民小學教育人員為對象,進行調查研究。共計發出432份問卷,回收426份,有效問卷421份。而研究採次數分配、百分比及卡方考驗進行統計分析。 歸納文獻探討與問卷調查結果,本研究獲致以下結論: 一、受少子化因素影響,造成國民小學減班、減師情形愈益嚴重,故期待政府有關部門導入相關對策,以有效改善人口持續減少問題。 二、教育人員期待主管教育單位,能逐年調降國小班級學生人數以紓緩超額壓力,並有利於提昇教師教學品質。 三、教育人員對於逐年提高教師編制之需求迫切,主管機應摒除預算排擠效應 的憂慮,優先考量教師工作權,才能讓教師安心從事教學。 四、學校接受超額教師時教評會應有實質性審查權,若產生超額教師時,教評會亦應有提列名單之建議權,且依長遠來看,研擬試辦教師專業評鑑,可為學校提列超額名單之參考。 五、教師非自願被超額時,應保障一定年限內不再被超額,而且有缺額學校應全數開列缺額供他校超額教師選填介聘。 六、超額教師帶來之校園衝擊情形依序為:教師對學校產生不安定感、使教師無心教學、專長教師若被超額將影響正常教學及擔心自己成為被超額的對象等四項。 根據上述結論,本研究提出以下建議以供參考: 一、 對於教育行政機關之建議: (一) 政府相關單位應成立因應小組,以導入少子化因應對策,且於修訂超額法規時,宜多聽取基層教師聲音。 (二) 及早修訂超額教師審查機制,並尊重教評會之專業審查權,再逐步試辦教師評鑑機制。 (三) 逐年調降班級學生數或提高教師編制,才能保障教師工作權,並將校園衝擊降至最低程度。 二、 對於國民小學之建議: (一) 宣導說明超額教師處理之相關規定與流程。 (二) 因應少子化減班趨勢,研擬因應配套方案實施。 關鍵字:國民小學、少子化、超額教師、教師介聘
The purposes of the study are to explore the executive implementation regarding surplus teachers’ employment, to analyze the reason that causes this phenomenon, and to view the surplus teachers’ employment system of elementary schools in Yi-Lan County. The research adopted the survey research and “The Survey Questionnaire on the Surplus Teachers’ Employment of Elementary School” was administered to collect the data. Teachers from seventy-four elementary schools were the population of the survey. Four hundred and thirty-two questionnaires were administered, four hundred and twenty-six returned, four hundred and twenty-one of which were effective. The collected data was statistically analyzed by the frequencies, percentage statistics and chi-square test. The results are as follows: 1. The pressure of reducing classes and teachers are caused by low birth rate. Thus, the educational authority concerned should conduct proper strategies to alleviate the possible damage caused by the low birth rate. 2. Educators expect highly that the educational authority concerned can reduce the student-teacher ratio to improve the quality of teaching. 3. The educational authority concerned should try to eliminate the obstacles of distributing the education budget because of educators’ increasing needs for resources. 4. The Committee of Teacher Selection and Evaluation (CTSE) should have the rights to examine and to suggest the surplus teachers’ list. In addition, the government can take Teacher Professional Evaluation as a reference for making the list. 5. Schools which need teachers should employ the surplus teachers and guarantee their employment for at least one year. 6. Surplus teachers could impact their school in the following four ways : feeling anxious about the school, not working hard in teaching, influencing the regular teaching and worrying about being a surplus teachers in the future. Based on the aforementioned results, the study made several suggestions as follows: 1. For Institution of Educational Administration: (1) Form a special team to cope with the educating problems caused by the low birth rate. In addition, listen to teachers’ opinions to adjust the rules regarding the surplus teachers’ employment system. (2) Respect the professional rights of the teacher evaluation committee and revise the censorship on surplus teachers. Then gradually try to conduct evaluation of the teaching profession. (3) Reduce student numbers in each class annually or raise the number of teachers on regular staff to guarantee teacher’s right to work and to minimize the damage to the schools as well. 2. For Elementary Schools: (1) Make their employees understand the rules and procedures to handle the issue of surplus teachers. (2) Advise the government to set up the suitable programs to respond to the trend of the low birth rate . Key words: Elementary school, low birth rate, surplus teachers, the employment of Teachers
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Keywords
國民小學, 少子化, 超額教師, 教師介聘, Elementary school, low birth rate, surplus teachers, the employment of Teachers
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