中國體育社團發展之研究-以全國性單項運動協會為例

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2008

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1978年中共十一屆三中全會拉開了中國經濟改革序幕,帶動了政治體制的變革,促使國家與社會體制關係的改變,體制上的變革及民眾的需求,刺激了社團組織的發展。 體育社團是比重較大的一個類別, 86個全國性體育社團中全國性單項協會共有75個, 中國對單項運動協會的管理以“運動項目管理中心(23個)+全國性單項運動協會(75個)”的組織模式形成一套管理系統。成立方式是由政府“自上而下”主導建立,大部分依附在政府體育部門或其他機構,是為了適應計劃經濟制度並且為了與國際單項組織接軌而成立的。 本研究自1950年9月,中國政務院制定了《社會團體登記暫行辦法》,到2007年底為止,針對中國體育社團—全國性單項運動協會的政策、法令、專書、原始文件及相關論文等,經過整理、分析、考證、詮釋、理解與評判的步驟,得到以下的結論: 一、全國性體育社團多為競技類單項運動協會。 二、單項運動協會具有強烈的官方色彩。 三、單項運動協會獨立生存能力薄弱。 四、由國家力量影響體育社團發展的項目。 五、單項運動協會與運動管理中心執掌權責模糊不明確。 關鍵詞:體育社團、單項運動協會
The Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China in 1978 started the economic reform process in China, and brought about revolutions in its political structure. The subsequent changes in social structure and public demand stimulated the growth of various organizations and associations. Sports associations take up a large ratio of all associations. Of the 86 national sports associations, 75 of them are single sports associations. The management of single sports associations in China is done through administration centers and national associations. These organizations are mostly administrated by government agencies and departments, and their main purpose is to guide these organizations to meet international standards. This study focuses on the policies, regulations, and relevant documentaries on the national single sports associations in China from September, 1950 to December, 2007. The results are as follows: 1. Most national sports associations are competitive single sports associations. 2. Single sports associations are under great government influence. 3. The ability for single sports associations to be independent is slim. 4. The government has control over the growth and development of sports associations. 5. There is ambiguity over the authority of single sports associations and administration centers.

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體育社團, 單項運動協會

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