美濃客家女性的性別角色與社會關係 Gender Role and Social Relations of Hakka Women in Meinung

Abstract
長期以來客家女性在客家文化中佔有重要地位,若將客家女性的特性抽離,客家族群的特色就無法完整建構。然而這樣的客家女性是如何教養出來的,需遵守何種規範,在日常生活中,有什麼樣的社會控制機制在運作?她們又以何種態度去面對?這些即是本研究的主要關心議題。以七位出生、生長且目前也居住在高雄縣美濃鎮的客家女性為研究對象。研究目的為:1.瞭解美濃客家女性需遵守的性別角色規範。2.瞭解美濃客家女性對性別角色規範的態度。3.瞭解女性在客家文化中的社會關係。4.比較客家女性不同社會位置的差異。研究過程採用質性研究取向,以深度訪談的方法,探討美濃客家女性的性別角色與社會關係。依照女性的生涯發展歷程,分別從身為女兒、嫁做人婦、媳婦熬成婆三個階段中需遵守的性別角色規範,加以敘述及分析。並進一步探討男女兩性的性別角色,及女性在客家文化下的社會位置、人際關係與從中所延伸出來的互動網絡。最後,將客家女性的共同與差異性作一分析與比較。 本研究結論如下: 一、客家女性非同質性的範疇。 1.在世代變遷下,年輕女人違反規範,老女人捍衛傳統。 2.高學歷高能動性,才有機會與能力擺脫客家文化的規範。 3.原生家庭的社經地位影響她們對規範的認知與態度。 4.長女承受較多規範限制。 5.接觸其他文化才能突破傳統束縛的框架。 二、客家女性在妥協的生存策略下,採取迂迴的抗議方式。 三、客家文化中男孩讀書、女孩幫忙的性別養成教育。
For a long time that Hakka women have possessed an important status in the Hakka Culture, if pull the characteristics of Hakka women out, then the Hakka ethnicity may not able to completely construct. However, how would such kind of Hakka women be brought up? Which type of norm they need to be obeyed? Which social controlling mechanism has been operated in their daily life? What kind of attitude they took to face it? All those abovementioned issues are the prior concerns for this study. Seven Hakka women who born, grown up and currently lived in Meinung Town of Kaohsiung County are the research subjects that adopted by this study. In addition, the research objectives are as follows: 1. To understand the norm of gender role that Hakka women need to be obeyed. 2. To understand the attitude Hakka women took toward the norm of gender role. 3. To understand Hakka women’s social relation to the Hakka culture. 4. To compare the difference in different social statuses that Hakka women possessed. As for the research procedure, it adopted the orientation of homogeneous research and the in-depth interview method to study the gender role and social status of Hakka women in Meinung. According to the life development for women, this study is described and analyzed the norm of gender roles that they need to be obeyed in three life phases, such as the phase of been a daughter, the phase of been married and the phase of been the mother-in-law. Further to discuss the gender role between women and men, and women’s social status, interpersonal relationship and its derived interaction network within Hakka culture. Lastly, the author is analyzed and compared the commonality and difference in Hakka women. And the outcomes of this study are as follows: (1)Inhomogeneous scope of Hakka women. 1.Under the change of generations, young women tried to against the norm while senior women tried to protect the traditions. 2.With high education background and proactivity, they may have chance and ability to free themselves from the norm of Hakka culture. 3.The socioeconomic status of their family-of-origin will influence their recognition and attitude toward norm. 4.The first-born daughter will bear more restrictions of norm. 5.The traditional bound frame can be broke through by contacting other cultures. (2)Under the compromising living strategy, Hakka women adopted the indirect protesting method. (3)The gender character education within the Hakka culture: Hakka boys only need to study, and Hakka girls only need to help with family affairs.
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Keywords
客家女性, 性別角色, 社會位置, Hakka Women, Gender Role, Social Status
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