知識工作任務導向之知識建構的自我協調與心智模式形成研究

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2010

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我們的營利與非營利的社會組職(包含政府組織),皆由擔負著不同的工作角色與任務的知識工作者所組成,而在變化快速的社會環境中,知識工作者藉由不同的資訊尋求的方式以滿足與克服其任務執行所需的資訊、知識與內涵,並確保其社會組職的運作順暢。知識工作者於任務執行時有兩種不同執行程序,一為依照其自身既有已建立的心智模式執行,也就是我們常說的經驗;另一則需經過不同的資訊尋求的方式與型態(包含網路搜尋、圖書館使用、詢問他人),才得以取得,這些新的資訊在經過不斷的使用後則會形成了知識工作者的知識與經驗,也就是說,當知識工作者不具備任務執行的經驗時,則須經由知識的建構才具備了解決問題與執行任務的能力。 本研究的主要目的,在了解知識工作者,在知識建構期間的認知發展對於工作任務執行與其中的問題與困難的排除、以及進行生活中興趣主題任務執行時的影響,藉由探究個人任務執行時知識建構歷程的自我協調發展,了解個人自我協調的因素,本研究以半結構訪談方式,訪談了三種職務類別的知識工作者,分別為;(1)資訊專業類別、(2)教育專業類別、(3)規劃與推廣專業類別。 本研究發現,個人在任務執行的知識建構歷程期間,其自我協調會受到目標、動機與其他因素的影響,而在自我協調的運作中會進行四個項目的協調程序,分別為(1)認知的協調、(2)方法的協調、(3)目標與動機的協調、(4)以及其他因素的協調。自我協調的因素除了目標與動機外,其它因素包含;(1)時效性、(2)情緒、(3)知識建構比重發展、(4)知識的分享方式。在進行知識建構以執行任務時,從社會情境中有經驗的他人尋求協助,以獲得問題解決的方式與活動的重要性與次序,會隨著任務的困難性而提升,個人會透過(1)同儕討論、(2)他人經驗詢問與模仿、(3)進修學習、(4)利用社群,四個活動來尋求社會情境的協助,以提升其知識建構與任務執行的成效。
Knowledge workers play different roles in current for-profit and non-profit(including the government) organizations. They use different methods to seek information in fulfilling their needs for task implementation in a rapidly changing environment. Knowledge workers have two different procedures when performing tasks. One is the original mental model, also known as experience, and the different paths of information seeking and knowledge construction form the other one. Building on the major theories of mental model, approaches of knowledge acquisition, and individual and social cognitive development, this study aims to understand knowledge workers’ cognitive development in knowledge construction processes, and how motivation and self-regulation can affect and enhance knowledge acquisition. This research applied the semi-structured interview technique to elicit the experiences of knowledge workers who are from different social contexts, with different task implementation and histories of knowledge acquisition. A total of ten subjects are recruited and their jobs fall into the following three categories: (1) information professionals, (2) education professionals, (3) planning and promotion of professionals. The findings reveal goals, motivation and other issues in the task implementation process affect that self-regulation. The operation of self-regulation involves four procedures, (1) cognitive regulation, (2) method egulation, (3) regulation of goals and motivation and (4) the regulation of other factors. Except for the goals and motivation factors, other factors include (a) timeliness, (b) emotion, (c) knowledge acquisition development and (d) knowledge-sharing approach. When tasks are perceived more difficult during the implementation of tasks, it is more likely to seek help from experienced people within the social network to obtain information regarding problem-solving methods, task priorities and ordering. To enhance their knowledge acquisition and the task execution results, knowledge workers will seek help from the social environment by (a) peer discussions, (b) question-asking and imitation, (c) formal learning and (d) engagement with communities. The research findings suggest that knowledge workers could self improve their knowledge acquisition through self-regulation and mental model forming strategies. Evaluation and further examination of such strategies are proposed for future research.

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知識建構, 心智模式, 自我協調, 認知發展, 社會認知發展, knowledge acquisition, mental models, self-regulation, cognitive development, social cognitive development

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