聲望規劃、語言態度與本土語言教學:以噶瑪蘭語教科書為例 Prestige Planning, Language Attitudes and Textbooks in Kavalan: A Critical Textbook Analysis on the Shaping of Language Attitudes

Date
2021
Authors
岑淳耀
Sammet, Patrick Oliver
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Abstract
此項研究旨在闡明和分析台灣國小與國中本土語言教育的教科書及課程的現狀,並以噶瑪蘭語這個僅約20人母語者的台灣東部原住民語言為例。從聲望規劃(prestige planning)的角度進行案例分析,透過批判論述分析當前教材如果按預期使用所將引起的語言態度。  在經歷過近半個世紀的極權政府和提倡國語運動後,伴隨著台灣民主化而來的是一場目標為振興、復興及保存本土語言並促進語言平等及少數族群權力的本土化運動,諸如閩南語等的本地語言在1990年代引入了學校課綱,最終在2001年在陳水扁出任總統後,成為必修課程。現在則被作為標準課程的一部分。剛實行時缺少教科書且教師沒有標準的資格鑑定,在25年過去後,對課程、教科書和教師資格的認定已趨標準化。許多針對台語和客語發展的研究及措施取得了巨大的進展的同時,原住民語卻因缺少母語者等原因經常乏人問津。  本研究的目的有三:(1)為所有南島語言提供一針對統一教材計畫之全面評述 (2) 提供當今教材發展階段現況及課堂教學方法之圖像及(3) 討論本土語言課程及教材是否具備相對應的語言聲望計劃策略。
The purpose of this study is to showcase and analyse the status of textbooks and the curriculum in local languages education in Taiwanese schools with a focus on Kavalan, a Formosan language natively spoken by the Kavalan people in Eastern Taiwan. This case study is conducted with a particular emphasis on the importance of prestige planning. Through the lens of Critical Textbook Analysis, the current teaching materials are analysed regarding the language attitudes they could evoke.Following nearly half a century of authoritarianism and the promotion of Mandarin Chinese, Taiwan democratised in the late 1980s. Taiwan's democratisation was accompanied and followed by a movement that favoured the revitalisation, reinvigoration, and maintenance of local languages to promote linguistic equality and minority rights. Even though these languages are taught as part of the standard curriculum today, much work needs to be done. For the past 25 years, there was a lack of textbooks, and teachers were ill-qualified, but during this period, the curriculum, the textbooks, and the requirements meant to be met by teachershave progressively become more and more standardised. Much progress has been made, and much research has been done on the teaching of Taigi and Hakka. Due to a lack of speakers, the Aboriginal languages have been often overlooked when it comes to the quality of the teaching materials and the significance this has to the revitalisation efforts.The primary aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive critique of a unified textbook for all Formosan languages. Additional purposes of this study are (1) to provide a picture of the current development stage of teaching materials (with a focus on textbooks) and teaching methods in these classes and (2) to discuss whether one can identify a coherent prestige planning strategy in the design of local language classes and the teaching materials.
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Keywords
語言復振, 噶瑪蘭語, 聲望計畫, 課本研究, 語言態度, language revitalisation, language attitudes, textbook research, prestige planning, Kavalan language
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