私立幼托機構教保人員與園所契合之研究 The Person-Organization Fit of Private Child Care Centers

Date
2009
Authors
張靜嫻
Ching-Hsien Chang
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Abstract
摘要 本研究依據Kristof(1996)和Cable&DeRue(2002)的契合相關理論進行研究,涵蓋契合理論之相似性契合與互補性契合兩構面,以完整的視野探討教保人員與園所之間的契合情形,採用自編之「教保人員與園所契合度之研究問卷」為工具,進行教保人員相似性契合、需求與供給契合、工作要求與能力契合之研究。研究採對偶設計方式,樣本為台北縣市私立幼托機構之教保人員與園所長主管,回收有效樣本為32套,共計32位園所長主管與96位教保人員。回收之問卷以配對方式進行資料分析,採單筆絕對差値之計算及加總方式進行統計分析。 本研究之重要發現有: 一、依因素分析之結果,教保人員與園所相似性契合可分成團隊目標、情緒外向、行為規範、價值感受四個主要因素;教保人員需求與園所供給契合可分為薪資福利、員工關懷兩個主要因素;園所工作要求與教保人員能力契合則包含經驗承諾與任務人際兩項主要因素。 二、從相似性契合(特質、價值觀、目標、行為規範)、需求與供給契合、工作要求與能力契合三方面探討教保人員與園所的契合程度,發現相較之下,教保人員與園所在相似性契合構面最契合,園所工作要求與教保人員能力構面之契合度次之,而教保人員需求與園所供給構面最不契合。 三、在契合度的整體排序中,教保人員與園所相似性契合以能參與重要決策最契合、幼教工作福利制度合理最不契合;教保人員需求與園所供給契合中,則以幼教工作能獲得人際互動機會最契合、工作安排符合教保人員的專業與專長最不契合;至於園所工作要求與教保人員能力的契合程度則以具備幼教工作專業知識最契合、對幼教工作的使命感最不契合。 四、單筆配對絕對差值的契合分數不會在計算過程中造成分數相互抵銷,可避免重要的契合項目被隱藏,亦可清楚觀察教保人員與園所之間的契合程度差距,有助於瞭解各構面的實際契合情形。一般採絕對差和方式計算時,園所工作要求與教保人員能力最契合,教保人員與園所相似性契合次之;本研究採單筆配對絕對差值計算之結果,則以教保人員與園所相似性契合程度最佳,園所工作要求與教保人員能力契合程度則次之。 五、園所長主管與教保人員配對研究發現教保人員認為自己與園所在特質、價值觀、目標、行為規範四個面向大致相似,但教保人員認為自己符合程度低於園所的期望;教保人員需求被滿足的程度低於園所長主管認為園所供給之措施滿足教保人員的程度;園所長主管認為教保人員能力符合工作要求的程度高於教保人員認為自己能力符合園所工作要求的程度。 六、教保人員的個人背景變項之年齡、幼教年資、現職年資、教育程度、園所幼兒人數、每月薪資,都與契合度沒有關聯,但不同的園所規模對相似性契合度、工作要求與能力契合度都有影響,園所規模在4~6班的教保人員之教保人員與園所相似性契合度、園所工作要求與教保人員能力契合度皆優於園所規模為1~3班的教保人員。 本研究整理研究結果與發現後,在幼教實務工作上建議園所長經營管理者應當多關懷教保人員、增加與其他園所互相交流的機會,彼此分享經營管理經驗;教保人員應同理園所永續經營的需求,認同幼教工作的社會價值。後續研究可以運用整合的契合理論為基礎,瞭解不同契合程度對教保人員工作表現、工作滿意、職業承諾,或離職意向等層面的影響;在研究樣本上可採隨機抽樣,或依各園所教保人員總數比例進行抽樣,以獲得更客觀的資料;在契合分數計算上,可將差距契合度再精緻化,以不同契合關係指標探討教保人員與園所契合之情形。
Abstract Based on the fit theories by Kristof (1996) and Cable& DeRue (2002), this research covers the two facets of supplementary and complementary within the fit theory and uses a broad perspective to investigate the fit between early childhood educators and child care centers. Using the self-edited “Person- Organization Fit Questionnaire for private child care centers” as the tool, this research proceeds with the study on supplementary fit of early childhood educators, Needs-Supplies fit, and Demands-Abilities fit. The research utilizes a matching model, with the educators and directors in the private child care centers in Taipei City and County as samples. The important findings of this research: 1. According to results from factor analysis, the four major factors that affect the supplementary fit between early childhood educators and private child care centers are “team goals”, “personalities”, “behaviors/norms”, and “values”. The two major factors that affect N-S fit between educators and director are “financial and welfare”, and “psychological and opportunities-related”. The two major factors that affect D-A fit between centers and educators include “resources” and “KSAs-related”. 2. When we investigate the fit degree between early childhood educators and child care centers through the three aspects including supplementary fit, N-S fit, and D-A fit, we discover that, by comparison, the supplementary had a good fit between educators and centers, the D-A fit had a misfit between directors and educators, while N-S fit between educators and directors had a unfit. 3. In terms of the overall fit ranking, “participation in major policies” had a good fit while “the reasonability of early childhood work welfare” had a unfit in terms of supplementary fit between early childhood educators and child care centers. “Early childhood work providing the chances for interaction” had a good fit while “the assigned works corresponding to the professional expertise of educators” had a unfit in terms of N-S fit between early childhood educators and their directors. As for D-A fit between child care centers’ directors and early childhood educators, “possessing professional knowledge in early childhood work” had a good fit, while “the sense of mission in early childhood work” had a unfit. 4. The fit score of a single match of the measurement of absolute will not cause the scores to cancel each other out in the calculation process and can avoid the trouble of major fit categories being hidden. It can also allow one to observe clearly the fit degree differences between early childhood educators and child care centers, and is helpful in understanding the actual fit situations in all aspects. 5. The research of matching child care centers with early childhood educators reveals that educators think they are similar with the centers in four aspects including personalities, values, goals, and behaviors / norms. The satisfaction of educators’ needs being answered is lower than the degree by which the directors think the centers’ provisions are satisfying the educators. The degree by which the directors think educators’ abilities correspond to the work demands is higher than the degree by which educators think their abilities live up to the work demands. 6. Early childhood educators’ personal background variants such as age, years of experience in early childhood education, years of experience in current job, education level, the number of children in the institution, and monthly wage are all unrelated to fit. However, the different sizes of the child care centers have impact on supplementary fit degree and D-A fit degree. This research suggests the child care centers directors to care for the early childhood educators; as for the educators, they should likewise adhere to the long term goals held by the centers. Subsequent researches can use integrated fit theories as the premise to understand the impact different fit degrees pose on aspects including educators’ work performance, work satisfaction, educational resources, and the intention to leave the job. One can adopt random sampling with the research samples, or one can take samples according to the ratio of the employee numbers in the different centers. In terms of the calculation of the fit score, one can elaborate the differences score fit indices and explore the fit between educators and centers according to the absolute difference fit indices.
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Keywords
個人與組織契合, 需求與供給契合, 工作要求與能力契合, 幼托機構, 教保人員, Person-Organization fit (P-O fit), Needs-Supplies fit (N-S fit), Needs-Supplies fit (N-S fit), child care center, early childhood educator
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