從布爾迪厄觀點論體育班文化再製:批判俗民誌的應用 From The Perspective of Bourdieu to Discuss The Cultural Reproduction of Athletic Class: Applications of Critical Ethnography

Date
2015
Authors
林義淳
Lin, Yi-Tsun
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Abstract
本研究以一所國中體育班試圖打破過去固有框架,進而塑造一有別於傳統運作模式和文化再製的旅程,作為故事文本的緒論發想。研究目的在瞭解研究個案之發展脈絡;並進一步探討體育班文化再製之具體作法和意涵;最終則以布爾迪厄文化再製理論,分析個案於文化再製過程中,實際互動下之網絡關係。研究方法採批判俗民誌方法,並以人類學式的參與觀察和其他質的研究方法,去對人類生活的「現實」和「文化」進行探究。研究結果發現個案受少子化之影響,嘗試提升學生學養,改變傳統體育班重視技能導向之觀念,塑造出屬於自己的品牌價值;其以「社區化」、「制度化」和「國際化」作為經營方向,強調對於人性價值的尊重;同時場域中的行動者皆必須認同此一「遊戲」為具意義性的;文化再製過程中涉及慣習的轉變、場域中位置的合作和角力關係,以及不同資本的投入和爭奪,意圖塑造出一符合統治階級所期望之規順、服從,同時亦「允文允武」的身體;而最終其具體作法和變革,則可作為現今或未來國中體育班在實務執行上之參考。
The current study is based on a real story that an athletic class in junior high school was in the process of transformation, trying to break the traditional rules and achieve cultural reproduction. The purpose of research aims to understand the development of the case and then further probe into the concrete means and implications of the reproduction of athletic class. Bourdieu’s Cultural Reproduction theory was applied to analyze the network of the case developed from the actual interactions during cultural reproduction. In addition to critical ethnography, anthropological participant observation and qualitative research methodologies were used to investigate the “reality” and “culture” in human life. The study revealed that the case was influenced by the declined birth rate in the society, attempts from school to promote students’ education and redirecting the focus of skills in traditional athletic class to create their own value. With a mission of Community, Institutionalization and Internationalization in mind, the value of humanity was emphasized; it was also recognized that the agency on the field needs to acknowledge the Game is meaningful. A number of factors have been involved in Cultural Reproduction: modifications of habitus, cooperation and competition on the field and the inputs and wrestles from various capitals in order to shape an obedient body which is also good in civil and in military affairs as expected by the ruling class. Finally, the concrete means and influence revealed from this case study could serve as a reference for cultivation of athletic class in junior high school.
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Keywords
文化再製, 布爾迪厄, 批判俗民誌, 體育班, cultural reproduction, Bourdieu, critical ethnography, athletic class
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